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New Gallienus Animal Coins from Zoo Series and Legionary Series, plus new Antioch Lion coin


DonnaML
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I bought four new animal coins of Gallienus in the Leu Numismatik auction last month: one new Zoo Series coin, two new coins from the Legionary Series, and one new Antioch Lion coin to add to the one I already had. I'm going to post all of them in this thread, but in three separate posts, both to avoid confusion and so I can also put up photos in each post of my other Gallienus animal coins from each of the three series. You are all, of course, invited to post your own Gallienus animal coins, regardless of which series they belong to! (Or whether they belong to no series at all, like Gallienus's coin depicting the wolf and twins.)

First, the Zoo Series. As a guide, here is a list I compiled two years ago of the 32 different types of reverses in the Zoo Series, together with the name of the deity in the reverse legend, and the number of the Officina or Officinae (given that some reverse types were issued by more than one Officina).  I have ignored variations in the obverse legend and bust (e.g., Gallienus facing left vs. right, bare head vs. draped & cuirassed; two ribbons behind head vs. one behind head & one across neck; legend with or without IMP in addition to GALLIENVS AVG; etc., etc.). 

The 10 reverse types I have (including the new purchase from Leu) are marked with asterisks in the list:

Lioness walking left [Apollo, Officina 2]
*Centaur walking left holding globe [Apollo, Officinas 4, 7, & 8]
*Centaur walking right with bow and arrow [Apollo, Officinas 7 & 8]
Centaur galloping right, with bow and arrow held up to sky [Apollo, Officina 7]
*Gryphon walking left [Apollo, Officinas 4 & 8]
Gryphon walking right [Apollo, Officina 4]
Gryphon seated left [Apollo, Officina 4]
*Antelope left [Diana, Officinas 3 & 4]
Antelope right [Diana, Officina 3]
Doe left, head turned back to right [Diana, Officina 5]
*Doe right, head turned back to left [Diana, Officina 5]
Stag left [Diana, Officina 10]
Stag right [Diana, Officina 10]
Gazelle left [Diana, Officinas 11 & 12]
*Gazelle right [Diana, Officinas 11 & 12]
Lion left [Hercules, Officina 1]
Boar right [Hercules, Officina 5]
Goat left [Jove, Officina 6]
Goat right [Jove, Officinas 4 & 6]
Panther left [Liber Pater, Officina 2]
Panther right, "rampant" (head facing upwards) [Liber, Officina 2]
*[Tigress left] [Liber Pater, Officina 2]
Criocampus [mythical beast with head and forelimbs of ram, and body and rear of fish] swimming right [Mercury, Officina 8]
Hippocamp [head and forelimbs of horse, body and rear of fish] swimming left [Neptune, Officina 9]
*Hippocamp swimming right [Neptune, Officina 9]
Capricorn [head and forelimbs of goat, body and rear of fish] swimming right [Neptune, Officina 6]
Pegasus left, rearing up on hind legs [Sol, Officina 1]
*Pegasus right, rearing up on hind legs [Sol, Officina 1]
Bull standing left [Sol, Officina 11]
*Bull standing right [Sol, Officina 11]
Antelope left [Salonina obverse, Juno, Officina 4]
Antelope right [Salonina obverse, Juno, Officina 4]

 

The following references, with links for those available online, are extremely useful for the Zoo Series: the little book by Cédric Wolkow, Catalogue des monnaies romaines - Gallien - L'émission dite "Du Bestiaire" - atelier de Rome (BNumis, édition 2019); Corpus and statistical study of the coins of Gallien Issuance of the bestiary by Cédric Wolkow & Frédéric Weber (http://www.fredericweber.com/GALLIEN/emission_du_bestiaire/index.htm ); and Jim Phelps, The Coins of Gallienus ' "Zoo" Collection (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Gallienus Zoo). See also the following websites and resources for the coins of Gallienus in general:  (1) Ed Flinn’s site Coinage of Gallienus and Family, at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm ; (2) https://bnumis.com/gallienus.net/index.html (Marcy K.'s site); and (3) Frank Reinhardt, José de Sousa, & Heidemarie Bieker, Gallienvs Antoninianii, The Antoninianii Collection of Gallienus by Frank Reinhardt (Eng. trans. 2022), available at https://www.academia.edu/77282280/GALLIENUS_ANTONINIANII_English_version_PDF .

My new Zoo Series coin:

Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 11th Officina, 10th emission (Göbl & Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG /Rev. Bull standing right, head three-quarters right, SOLI CONS AVG [off flan: XI in exergue, for 11th Officina]. RIC V-1 285, RSC IV 983, Sear RCV III 10363, Wolkow 28a11 [Cédric Wolkow, Catalogue des monnaies romaines - Gallien - L'émission dite "Du Bestiaire" - atelier de Rome (BNumis, édition 2019)], Göbl MIR [Moneta Imperii Romani] Band 36, No. 749b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn’s site Coinage of Gallienus and Family) & in Reinhardt at p. 140, no. 1 (Frank Reinhardt, José de Sousa, & Heidemarie Bieker, Gallienvs Antoninianii, The Antoninianii Collection of Gallienus by Frank Reinhardt (Eng. trans. 2022), available at https://www.academia.edu/77282280/GALLIENUS_ANTONINIANII_English_version_PDF )]. 21 mm., 3.12 g, 11 h. Purchased from Leu Numismatik AG, Winterthur, Switzerland, Web Auction 21, 19 Jul 2022, Lot 4907.

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My 9 other Zoo Series coins (references cited in full for the new coin are not fully repeated for the other nine):

Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint (7th Officina). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Centaur walking right, holding bow with right hand and drawing arrow and bowstring with left hand, left front leg lifted, APOLLINI CONS AVG; Z [Zeta = 7th Officina] in exergue.  RIC V-1 163, RSC IV 72, Sear RCV III 10177, Wolkow 2a7 (ill. p. 41), Göbl MIR Band 36, No. 735b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn's site) & in Reinhardt at p. 131, no. 4].  20 mm., 2.96 g. Purchased Jan. 2022 from Ingemar Wallin Utveckling AB, Uppsala, Sweden. 

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Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 8th Officina, 10th emission (Göbl and Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Centaur walking left holding a globe in extended right hand and a reversed rudder in left hand, with right front leg lifted, APOLLINI CONS AVG; H [Eta = 8th Officina] in exergue.  RIC V-1 164, RSC IV 73 (ill.), Sear RCV III 10178, Wolkow 1a8, Göbl MIR  Band 36, No. 738b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn's site) & in Reinhardt at p. 133, no. 2]. 20 mm., 3.42 g., 12 h. 

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Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 4th Officina, 10th emission (Göbl and Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Gryphon walking left, APOLLINI CONS AVG; Δ [Delta = 4th Officina] in exergue. RIC V-1 166, RSC IV 76, Sear RCV III 10180, Wolkow 4a4, Göbl MIR Band 36, No. 718b  [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn's site); not ill. in Reinhardt w/radiate head right & this obv. legend]. 20.5 mm., 3.29 g., 6 h. 

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Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 3rd Officina, 10th emission (Göbl and Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Antelope walking left, DIANAE CONS AVG; Γ [Gamma = 3rd Officina] in exergue. RIC V-1 181 [p. 146, Obverse 8K], RSC IV 165, Sear RCV III 10200, Wolkow 7a3, Göbl MIR Band 36, No. 716b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn's site) & in Reinhardt at p. 123, no. 1]. 20 mm., 3.59 g., 7 h.  

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Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 5th Officina, 10th emission (Göbl & Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Doe walking right, head turned back looking left, DIANAE CONS AVG; Є [Epsilon = 5th Officina] in exergue. RIC V-1 177, RSC IV 154, Wolkow 10a5, Sear RCV III 10199 (same reverse & obverse portrait; different obv. legend), Göbl MIR Band 36, No. 728b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn's site); not ill. in Reinhardt w/radiate head right & this obv. legend]. 21 mm., 2.72 g., 6 h. 

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Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 11th Officina, 10th emission (Göbl & Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG /Rev. Gazelle* walking right, DIANAE CONS AVG; XI in exergue. RIC V-1181, RSC IV 157, Wolkow 14a11,, Cunetio 1401, Sear RCV III 10201, Göbl MIR Band 36, No. 747b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn's site) & in Reinhardt at p. 139, no. 1]. 21 mm., 3.24 g., 6 h.

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* See the following identifying animal as gazelle: Wolkow p. 64; http://www.fredericweber.com/GALLIEN/emission_du_bestiaire/page2.htm; Jim Phelps, The Coins of Gallienus ' "Zoo" Collection (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Gallienus%20Zoo); Ed Flinn's site. Incorrectly identified as a deer in Reinhardt. 

Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 2nd Officina, 10th emission  (Göbl & Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG /Rev. Tigress walking left, LIBERO P • CONS AVG; B in exergue. RIC V-1 230, RSC IV 586, Wolkow 19a2, Sear RCV III 10281, Göbl MIR  Band 36, No. 713b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn's site) & in Reinhardt at p. 121, no. 1]. [Tigress variety of these catalogue numbers: see http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Liber Pater; see also description of type as tigress at Ed Flinn’s website, at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm .] 19 mm, 2.83 g., 6 h. 


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Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 9th Officina, 10th emission (Göbl & Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate cuirassed bust right, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Hippocamp swimming right, NEP-TVNO CONS AVG; in exergue, N [= Nu, for 9th Officina). RIC V-1 245, RSC IV 668 (ill.), Wolkow 23i9, Bust Type B3, Ribbons Type 3 (see p. 87), Sear RCV III 10292, Göbl MIR  Band 36, No. 743b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm (Ed Flinn's site) & in Reinhardt at p. 136, no. 5]. 19 mm.,  g.  Purchased from Akropolis Ancient Coins, May 2021. 

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Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 267-268 AD, Rome Mint, 1st Officina, 10th emission (Göbl & Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG /Rev. Pegasus springing right, about to take flight. SOLI CONS AVG; A offset to right in exergue. RIC V-1 283 (p. 155), RSC IV 979, Sear RCV III 10362, Wolkow 26a1, Göbl MIR Band 36, No. 712b [ill. at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm & in Reinhardt at p. 120, no. 1]. 21 mm., 3.12 g, 11 h.  

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The next post in this thread will be for my two new animal coins from the Gallienus Legionary Series, plus the one I already had. Meanwhile, please feel free to post any Zoo Series coins you may have yourself, since I don't believe we've had a thread here yet devoted to Gallienus's Zoo Series or his other animal coins.

 


 

Edited by DonnaML
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Now, my two new Legionary Series coins of Gallienus. (The same footnote applies to both of them.)

Gallienus (son of Valerian I), Billon Antoninianus, 260-261 AD [Sear], 260 AD [Reinhardt], 258 AD [RIC], Mediolanum [Milan] Mint, 2nd emission (Göbl and Reinhardt), Legionary Issue. Obv. Radiate and cuirassed bust right, two ribbons behind, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Capricorn springing right, LEG I ADI VI P VI F ( = Legio I Adiutrix [“Rescuer”], VI Pia, VI Fidelis [see fn.]). RIC V-1 315j [joint reign], RSC IV 447 (ill. p. 77), Sear RCV III 10252, Göbl MIR [Moneta Imperii Romani] Band 36, No. 982r [ill. with other legionary series coins at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/cgi-bin/erfind.pl?sstring=legio+milan (Ed Flinn’s site Coinage of Gallienus and Family), and at Reinhardt p. 180, no. 5 (Frank Reinhardt, José de Sousa, & Heidemarie Bieker, Gallienvs Antoninianii, The Antoninianii Collection of Gallienus by Frank Reinhardt (Eng. trans. 2022), available at https://www.academia.edu/77282280/GALLIENUS_ANTONINIANII_English_version_PDF )]. 22 mm., 2.8 g, 12 h.  Purchased from Leu Numismatik AG, Winterthur, Switzerland, Web Auction 21, 19 Jul 2022, Lot 4869; ex Collection of Dipl.-Ing. [ = Engineering Master’s Degree] Adrian Lang, b. Germany 1956 [see https://leunumismatik.com/source/images/auction/36/pdf/b2acb9be-1e8d-4395-a863-6c5c7c37ed4b.pdf for biography]; ex Jesus Vico Auction 133, 15 Nov. 2012, Lot 2549.* 

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Gallienus (son of Valerian I), Billon Antoninianus, 260-261 AD [Sear], 260 AD [Reinhardt], 258 AD [RIC], Mediolanum [Milan] Mint, 2nd emission (Göbl and Reinhardt), Legionary Issue. Obv. Radiate and cuirassed bust right, two ribbons behind, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Centaur with beard galloping right, raising his right hand in salute and holding club in left hand, LEG II PART VI P VI F ( = Legio II Parthica, VI Pia, VI Fidelis [see fn.]). RIC V-1 336j [joint reign], RSC IV 483, Sear RCV III 10262 (ill. p. 294), Göbl MIR [Moneta Imperii Romani] Band 36, No. 997r [ill. with other legionary series coins at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/cgi-bin/erfind.pl?sstring=legio+milan (Ed Flinn’s site Coinage of Gallienus and Family), and at Reinhardt p. 187, no. 6]. 22 mm., 2.8 g, 12 h.  Purchased from Leu Numismatik AG, Winterthur, Switzerland, Web Auction 21, 19 Jul 2022, Lot 4872; ex Collection of Dipl.-Ing. [ = Engineering Master’s Degree] Adrian Lang, b. Germany 1956 [see https://leunumismatik.com/source/images/auction/36/pdf/b2acb9be-1e8d-4395-a863-6c5c7c37ed4b.pdf for biography] .*

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*[This footnote applies to both of these legionary series coins.] A capricorn and a centaur were the emblems, respectively, of Leg. I Adiutrix and Leg. II Parthica -- just as the animals or other figures shown on the reverses of the other coins of the Gallienus legionary series served as the emblems or badges of those legions. See Jones, John Melville, A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins (London, Seaby, 1999) at p. 166 [entry for Legio]); RIC V-1 at p. 34. See also the list of the legions and their emblems depicted in the Gallienus legionary series at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/cgi-bin/erfind.pl?sstring=legio+milan (Ed Flinn’s site). Note that if this theory is correct, then several animals served as the emblem of more than one legion -- e.g., the bull for three legions [VII, VIII, and X]. 

Leg. I Adiutrix and Leg. II Parthica were primarily based, during the third century AD, at Brigetio in Pannonia (modern Szöny, northwest Hungary), and on the Alban mountain near Rome. (See the articles about these legions at https://www.livius.org/articles/legion/legio-i-adiutrix/ and https://www.livius.org/articles/legion/legio-ii-parthica/, a website on ancient history written and maintained by the Dutch historian Jona Lendering. For an index to articles about other legions, see https://www.livius.org/articles/legion .)

The general consensus is that the P and F stood for Pia Fidelis.
See Jones, A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins , supra at p. 166 [entry for Legio] (“the correct explanation seems to be that the legions were being commended for the virtues of piety and fidelity”). Note that “P F” can also stand for Pius Felix (see RIC V-1 at p. 32), but that term is usually associated with the emperor himself, and “faithfulness” seems a more appropriate appellation for the legions than “happiness.”  

There is also controversy about the year(s) of issue of the legionary series, relating to the meaning of the Roman numeral VI preceding both the P and the F in the reverse legend (as well as concerning the meaning, in various other examples of the legionary series, of the numerals V or VII instead of VI preceding P and F).  In RIC V-1 at p. 34 (published in 1927), the editor Harold Mattingly cited the work of Sir Charles Oman supporting the theory that the Roman numerals refer to the regnal years of Gallienus’s joint reign with his father in which the coins were issued -- i.e., years V-VII, or 157-159 AD -- despite the fact that “the obverse inscription is usually GALLIENVS AVG, a form of legend which does not generally appear until 260.”  According to Mattingly, Oman “conclusively points out that Gallienus would, at no date after 259, have celebrated the piety and loyalty of the Rhine legions [several of which, such as Leg VIII Augusta, are included in the legionary series], which had assisted the rebel Postumus to overthrow his authority in Gaul and to slay his son” (Saloninus). Jones agrees, stating in his Dictionary at p. 166 that “the numbers indicated the years of the emperor’s reign.”

However, the more modern authorities all seem to disagree with this interpretation, and place the legionary series near the beginning of Gallienus’s sole reign. See Sear RCV III at p. 293, where David Sear states in a note to No. 10252 (the Legio I Adiutrix capricorn coin above) that the legionary series of Gallienus “was issued early in his sole reign [i.e., after Valerian I’s capture by the Persians in 260] at Milan [Mediolanum], the base of the recently established field army commanded by Aureolus. The units honoured were the Praetorian Cohort and the seventeen legions which had furnished detachments for the field army. The numerals ‘VI’ and ‘VII’ appearing in the reverse legends [VI for my examples] may refer to the victories achieved by Aureolus over the usurpers Ingenuus and Regalian.”  See also Zach Beasley’s article on this subject at http://beastcoins.com/RomanImperial/V-I/Gallienus/Gallienus.htm  (“In 260, following the defeats of the revolts, Gallienus produced Antoniniani at Milan, honoring his different legions.  Each legion or cohort is featured through the legionary badge on the reverse, along with the victory number and P F for Pia Fidelis.  One coin type was issued for each of the three battles in which the unit participated.  Victory V was against the Alemanni, VI was against Ingenuus and VII was against Regalianus”).  Neither Sear nor Beasley provides any source for the theory that the three Roman numerals can be tied to specific victories.  Nor do they address Mattingly’s argument (derived from Charles Oman) that Gallienus would not have honored and praised the Rhine legions after the usurpation of Postumus in the summer of 260. (But see the footnote to my Leg. VIII Augusta legionary series bull coin below for a citation to Jona Lendering’s article asserting that despite that legion’s traditional location in Argentoratum [Strasbourg] in Germania Superior, that legion actually supported Gallienus rather than Postumus.) 

The historian Jona Lendering offers a different interpretation. At https://www.livius.org/articles/legion/legio-ii-parthica/, in the article on Legio II Parthica, named on my “centaur with club” coin (as well as in other articles about other legions), the author implicitly rejects both the view that the Roman numerals V, VI, and VII represent regnal years, and the view that they refer to specific victories, asserting instead that legends such as “VI Pia VI Fidelis” simply honor a given legion for having been faithful and loyal on the specified number of occasions: “it is certain that in the conflict between the emperor Gallienus and his rival Postumus (260-268), the Second Parthian legion supported the first-mentioned, for which it was rewarded with surnames like Pia V Fidelis V (‘five times faithful and loyal’), Pia VI Fidelis VI, and finally Pia VII Fidelis VII.”

In short, even assuming that the modern authorities are correct that the legionary series was issued after the commencement of Gallienus’s sole reign, there is no generally-agreed answer to the questions of precisely what the V, VI, or VII on these coins signify – i.e., whether they refer to specific victories (numbered in an unknown fashion), or simply to the number of times a given legion proved itself to be faithful and loyal. 

And here is the one Legionary Series coin I already had:

Gallienus (son of Valerian I), Billon Antoninianus, 260-261 AD [Sear], 260 AD [Reinhardt], 258 AD [RIC], Mediolanum [Milan] Mint, 2nd emission (Göbl and Reinhardt), Legionary Issue. Obv. Radiate and cuirassed bust right, two ribbons behind, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Bull advancing right, bellowing with head raised and mouth open, LEG VIII AVG [Augusta] VI P [Pia] VI F [Fidelis].  RIC V-1 353j [joint reign] (p. 95), RSC IV 522, Sear RCV III 10268, Göbl MIR [Moneta Imperii Romani] Band 36, No. 1009h [ill. with other legionary series coins at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/cgi-bin/erfind.pl?sstring=legio+milan (Ed Flinn’s site Coinage of Gallienus and Family); bust type not. ill in Reinhardt]. 2.18 mm., 2.49 g.*

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*See the footnote above to the capricorn and centaur legionary series coins, incorporated herein. A bull was the emblem of Leg. VIII Augusta, based at Argentoratum in Germania Superior (modern Strasbourg, France), on the Rhine. See the article on this legion at Jona Lendering’s site, at https://www.livius.org/articles/legion/legio-viii-augusta/. However, as Mattingly points out (RIC V-1 at p. 34), Germania Superior was controlled by Postumus beginning in 260; he uses that fact to argue (as quoted in the footnote above) that the legionary series must have been issued earlier, during Gallienus’s joint reign with his father, because the Rhine legions supported Postumus, and, therefore, Gallienus would never have honored them after the establishment of the Gallic Empire. But see Jona Lendering’s article on Leg. VIII Augusta, asserting that “in the conflict between the emperors Gallienus (of Italy) and Postumus (of Gaul), the legion seems to have supported the former, and it received honorific titles like V, VI, VII Pia fidelis (five times, six times, and seven times faithful and loyal).” The obvious implication -- if one accepts the modern view that the legionary series coins were issued after Gallienus’s sole reign began in 260 -- is that during the existence of the Gallic Empire, Leg. VIII Augusta’s base must have been moved elsewhere, outside Germania Superior, or Gallienus would not have honored it with the titles it was given on the legionary series coins.  
 

My next post will present my two Gallienus Lion coins from Antioch -- one new, from the Leu auction, and one I've had for a while. In the meantime, please post any Legionary Series coins of Gallienus that you may have, in addition to  Zoo Series coins.

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Finally, my two Antioch Lion coins of Gallienus. First, the new one.

Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 264-265 AD, Antioch Mint, 12th emission (Göbl MIR and Reinhardt). Obv. Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right, two ribbons behind, seen from behind, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Lion, radiate, advancing left, holding thunderbolt in his jaws, P M TR P XII; in exergue, C VI PP [CVI = COS VI]. RIC 601 var. (obv. bust left); RSC IV 842 var. (obv. bust left; palm branch in rev. exergue); Göbl MIR [Moneta Imperii Romani] Band 36, No. 1620i (not ill. at Ed Flinn’s site; this bust type not ill. in Reinhardt). Purchased from Leu Numismatik AG, Winterthur, Switzerland, Web Auction 21, 19 Jul 2022, Lot 4893; ex Collection of Dipl.-Ing. [ = Engineering Master’s Degree] Adrian Lang, b. Germany 1956 [see https://leunumismatik.com/source/images/auction/36/pdf/b2acb9be-1e8d-4395-a863-6c5c7c37ed4b.pdf for biography]. [Leu describes this variety of the type as “Very rare,” with three examples recorded in Göbl MIR; acsearch.com lists seven examples including this coin.]*

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*See Woods, David, "From Caracalla to Carausius: The Radiate Lion with Thunderbolt in its Jaws," British Numismatic Journal 88 (British Numismatic Society 2018) at pp. 189-194, explaining that this type was “first used by the emperor Caracalla (211−17) in 215 and last used by the British usurper Carausius (286−93) and his continental contemporaries Diocletian (284−305) and Maximian (286−305).” According to the author, “the radiate lion with a thunderbolt in its jaws was a symbol of [imperial] courage. The fact that the emperor during whose reign this type was first used [Caracalla] was strongly interested in Alexander the Great encourages the belief that traditions concerning Alexander the Great may have influenced the design of this symbol. The match between the main elements of two ominous dreams experienced by the parents of Alexander before his birth and the main elements of this symbol, a lion and a thunderbolt, suggest a connection between the two. [See article for details on these dreams.] The fact that these dreams were understood as omens of how courageous Alexander would be confirms this connection.” Id. p. 193. The purpose of the crown on the lion’s head “may have been to denote royal or imperial status” (id. p. 191), reinforcing the reference to imperial courage.

The Antioch lion coin I already had:

Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 264-265 AD, Antioch Mint, 11th emission (Göbl MIR and Reinhardt).*  Obv. Radiate head left, two ribbons behind, GALLIENVS AVG / Rev. Lion walking left (not radiate), bucranium [bull’s head] in front of paws, P M TR P XIII; in exergue, C VI PP [CVI = COS VI], palm branch left below. RIC V-1 602 var. obv. [bust draped & cuirassed] & rev. [lion radiate]; RSC IV 847 var. rev. [lion radiate]; Sear RCV III 10327 var. rev. [lion radiate]; Göbl MIR [Moneta Imperii Romani] Band 36, No. 1622a [ill. at Ed Flinn’s site Coinage of Gallienus and Family, at http://www258.pair.com/denarius/coinage.htm, and at Reinhardt p. 340, no. 5 (Frank Reinhardt, José de Sousa, & Heidemarie Bieker, Gallienvs Antoninianii, The Antoninianii Collection of Gallienus by Frank Reinhardt (Eng. trans. 2022), available at https://www.academia.edu/77282280/GALLIENUS_ANTONINIANII_English_version_PDF )]. 21 mm., 4.05 g., 12 h.**

image.png.e78b4b683af00003ff851fddfedd1a82.png


*See Euston, Charles, Gallienus to Antioch ? A new PROFECTIO type of antoninianus from the mint at Antioch, A.D. 264, in Bulletin du cercle d’études numismatiques [BCEN] 52/2 (2015), at p. 2: “Göbl’s 11th emission begins with another lion reverse; lion (not radiate), left with a bull’s head between its paws (MIR 1622). This reverse is also dated, but to Gallienus’ 13th tribunician power (TRP XIII). Interestingly, this type straddles both the 12th and the 11th emissions as it exists both with and without the palm frond as exergual marker. This mark in the exergue is, in fact, the primary indicator of the 11th emission.”


**See Manders, Erika (2012), Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Impact of Empire (Roman Empire, c. 200 B.C.–A.D. 476), at pp. 296-297 [portions available on Google Books], stating that “[f]our coin types [of Gallienus] [NB: in fact, there were more than four] bear a legend consisting of standard imperial titalature and show a lion with a bull’s head between his paws or a radiate lion (sometimes with a bull’s head between his paws). . . . These types might refer to the victories of Odaenathus [of Palmyra], Rome’s ally, gained over the Persians, probably in 262-263 and 267. This hypothesis is strengthened by the thirteenth Sybilline Oracle’s description of the Persians as ‘venom spitting beasts’ who have been destroyed by Odaenathus, the ‘sun-sent, dreadful, fearful lion, breathing much fire.’” Other authorities have expressed skepticism regarding this interpretation.  See, e.g., Woods, David, "From Caracalla to Carausius: The Radiate Lion with Thunderbolt in its Jaws," British Numismatic Journal 88 (British Numismatic Society 2018) at pp. 189-194 (arguing at p. 193 that the Manders interpretation is unconvincing for various reasons, that the radiate lion with thunderbolt symbolizes imperial courage [see footnote to Gallienus coin depicting radiate lion with thunderbolt in its mouth], and that for emperors who issued both types [Probus and Gallienus], the iconographical differences between the two types were probably of no significance).
 

Please post your own Gallienus animal coins from Antioch, whether depicting lions or any other creature.

 

Edited by DonnaML
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You have a lot of great examples. It must've taken a lot of patience to put them together.

1 hour ago, DonnaML said:

*Antelope left [Diana, Officinas 3 & 4]
Antelope right [Diana, Officina 3]
Doe left, head turned back to right [Diana, Officina 5]
*Doe right, head turned back to left [Diana, Officina 5]
Stag left [Diana, Officina 10]
Stag right [Diana, Officina 10]
Gazelle left [Diana, Officinas 11 & 12]
*Gazelle right [Diana, Officinas 11 & 12]

What is the difference between the antelope and the gazelle? I more or less understand the stag (large antlers) and doe (no antlers). Is there a difference? I have this coin (sorry for the photo, it's encapsulated in a terrible holder for some reason) which is labelled RIC 181. But RIC 181 includes numerous varieties featuring what is called a gazelle or an antelope walking right or left (as well as Gallienus facing right or left in various states of dress). Most of the animals are smaller with spindly legs.

Gallienus Antoninianus, 268

image.png.bb1417c838ba8d158798d9823af39890.png

Rome. Billon, 2.4g. Radiate head right; GALLIENVS AVG. Antelope walking left; DIANAE CONS AVG; Gamma in exergue (RIC V.1, 181). Purportedly from the Rockbourne (Hampshire) Hoard 1967.

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Double struck example

This item is an AE Antoninianus of Gallienus, who ruled 253-268 A.D. The obverse shows his radiate bust right, with the legend "IMP GALLIENUS AUG". The reverse depicts an antelope walking left, with the legend "DIANAE CONS.AUG)". 

RCS #2953. RICVa #181. DVM #49/7. RCSVIII #10200.

these types were issued ca. 267-268 A.D., to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.)

 

ESJ-392 OBV.jpg

ESJ-392 REV.jpg

Edited by Jims,Coins
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Lovely Gallieni, Donna -- had no idea you had an impressive standalone collection of those!

That's a cool looking coin @John Conduitt! Is that considered a barbarous type? Or semi-official or something? Seems the DIANAE legend is misspelled DEANA(E) right? (Looks a lot better than most of the little Iberian and Gallic and British radiates I've got!)

Interesting double-strike (?) @Jims,Coins! (And an interesting, unusual graffito on the reverse. I wonder what that's about?)

Seems like I haven't photographed most of the interesting ones, but they're mostly lower-grade group lots pulls anyway. Still, I really like having my little zoo full of these.

Here's a hippocamp that I like for the die-clash (I guess most people see it as a defect, but I love my die-clashes -- especially when they're oriented to 12h!):

image.png.92846b9d804cd224386ae11842697257.png
 

I bought this group of 9 common types from CNG EA 496, but was able to determine they were previously part of a group lot of 26 sold at EA 482. Came with some priced dealer tray tags (one or two cut from Kirk Davis catalogs or business cards, maybe he was the consignor?).

Photo credit: CNG (edited):

image.jpeg.00f9cc5e8da7bb21c8674dc99e3f5e5e.jpeg

 

Not from the same series, but here's my wolf, from Antioch according to my notes (RIC 628):

image.jpeg.c2c4c7e74577ad32546a8b63cd127737.jpeg

This angry little boar looks a bit better in person:

image.png.22ccdf7cc625aebe7c4676b79ab18eb9.png

Maybe I can come back with a group shot of some of my others...

Edited by Curtis JJ
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1 hour ago, John Conduitt said:

You have a lot of great examples. It must've taken a lot of patience to put them together.

What is the difference between the antelope and the gazelle? I more or less understand the stag (large antlers) and doe (no antlers). Is there a difference? I have this coin (sorry for the photo, it's encapsulated in a terrible holder for some reason) which is labelled RIC 181. But RIC 181 includes numerous varieties featuring what is called a gazelle or an antelope walking right or left (as well as Gallienus facing right or left in various states of dress). Most of the animals are smaller with spindly legs.

Gallienus Antoninianus, 268

image.png.bb1417c838ba8d158798d9823af39890.png

Rome. Billon, 2.4g. Radiate head right; GALLIENVS AVG. Antelope walking left; DIANAE CONS AVG; Gamma in exergue (RIC V.1, 181). Purportedly from the Rockbourne (Hampshire) Hoard 1967.

That's an antelope. You can tell from the officina number.

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Here are two from the Mildenhall Hoard. It was discovered in 1833 and there were 1,286 coins from the 3rd century. One was a denarius of Caracalla and the rest were antoniniani from Valerian to Aurelian.

 

Gallienus_Rome181.JPG.d1b2eb856ee17fec5cd2461087df26d7.JPG

 

Gallienus

A.D. 267-268

Ӕ Antoninianus

19x22mm   3.2g

GALLIENVS AVG; radiate head right.

DIANAE CONS AVG; Antelope walking right.

In ex. XI[?]

RIC V Rome 181 

 

 

868718125_Gallienus_Rome165Gbl713b.JPG.60aa5f58ee41516de38a6542d1da3377.JPG

 

 

Gallienus

A.D. 267- 268

Ӕ Antoninianus

20x22mm     2.8g

IMP GALLIENVS AVG; radiate head right.

LIBERO P CONS AVG; panther walking left.

In ex. B

RIC V Rome 165; Göbl 713b

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The Gallienus zoo series is my main collecting focus, I have around 100 coins that belong to the series. 

This was my purchase from the last Leu auction, a criocamp to upgrade the existing one in my collection. 

PhotoRoom-20220724_181314.png.383f1fada9b1e28598981d751ce64eeb.png

My original criocamp

PhotoRoom-20220812_004720.png.cd04cbf3948f2fbb5cce04ffd5cabcf8.png

These two coins came from the same lot on CNG and are two of the hardest to find coins from the zoo series. They aren't in the greatest condition, but I also never thought I'd get them. They also averaged out to be some of the least expensive of my coins as no one really bid against me, I don't even think even think it hit the estimate. 

Herculean lion

PhotoRoom-20220724_093520.png.8f79396050385efca1c9bf2412ea2c81.png

Right facing Gryphon 

PhotoRoom-20220724_094514.png.2853bf31911cb64d1f26b10c3b54f610.png

Two more of the rarer coins from his series that also came in CNG lots. They were from the same auction as above abs again I don't think any of the 3 zoo group lots I purchased from that auction hit the estimate so lucked out on all of them.

Left facing hippocamp

PhotoRoom-20220724_100620.png.8dc01f7a9a1773c1035d151608507dcc.png

Left facing pegasusPhotoRoom-20220724_092927.png.fe5694b12a81fa798f67f2890fa10e0c.png

Another left facing pegasus I found on ebay. It's overcleaned, but was only $30 USD so well worth it in my opinion. The reverse is also a die match for a coin sold by Wolkow.

PhotoRoom-20220724_093210.png.2f1eb670890bfad4f54fbdfe3a45d6a1.png

And another coin I never thought I'd own, the seated griffin. It has nice detail and silvering and is overall much nicer in hand than the photo shows. PhotoRoom-20220724_093947.png.28bc6be00b6010ef2862c6430ec590de.png

I have two Herculean boars, the first is amongst my favorites of my collection.

PhotoRoom-20220724_172800.png.3dece5fb7244fb792950558167d0e6bc.pngPhotoRoom-20220724_101241.png.20f26d6ba4fdad7cf8e7b8d06e88d5ec.png

This isn't the nicest bull I own, but it's interesting because the mint mark is IX instead of XI.

PhotoRoom-20220724_111029.png.887cd4437a86be6fe7dc643d696c2dcb.png

This coin is the IVNONI bearded elk that is associated with Salonina's coinage. There are however some examples like mine that have a Gallienus obverse. 

PhotoRoom-20220724_091836.png.da8a479690275137fa1657f9dfc59b16.png

Two capricorns

PhotoRoom-20220724_100211.png.8d4c01e33e417d18455d6dec55a39337.pngPhotoRoom-20220724_095445.png.2072a1c188c61001fd1f65c3ef580af3.png

Edited by EtTu
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Here's two of my favorite Pegasi, I just love the styling on these coins. The first was possibly double struck as the pegasus had a mintmark on his flank. 

PhotoRoom-20220724_100334.png.881b2adbfd5ae23dcac73cfea51b7f20.pngPhotoRoom-20220724_163620.png.8f4cfabef74a2c860049fd439da17cf0.png

A nicely detailed and silvered panther/tigress, I'd say tigress based on the striping. 

PhotoRoom-20220724_103121.png.c6876bcd0470b5d681a74448ee577363.png

Two of my favorite hippocampi. The first is one I recently found on ma-shops for just $15 USD, the picture wasn't very good but I thought it looked like it had good detail. I was very surprised by just how nice it was when I got it in hand. Pictures don't do it justice. It's nicely silvered and has excellent detail. I just love how on both coins the hippocampi's mane goes to their elbow.

PhotoRoom-20220809_235219.png.827a9cab2c3538ef587a46c94316aac6.pngPhotoRoom-20220809_232832.png.a98d93b1fa070ea578ce498ffd00cd0b.png

A double struck centaur 

PhotoRoom-20220811_232152.png.00fca183409300ec3f73031229f1ba9f.png

A hippocamp with an unusual mintmark, ot should be N.

PhotoRoom-20220724_091535.png.9316612b0101e2304f45a547311ecefc.png

A hippocamp with a spelling error on the reverse NAEPTVUNO. Possibly a fraudulent coin.

20220724_085722.png.f123b8871dfbc8e332e744ecd9a17c8e.png

An imitation coin purchased from Wolkow

PhotoRoom-20220727_203807.png.9ba399d6e3c80dbe9cec904b2293bf00.png

 

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@DonnaML Thank you! I don't have the Apollini lioness, the rearing/galloping with raised bow centaur, right facing panther, left facing bull, and the right facing antelope with the gamma mintmark. 

Edited by EtTu
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Truly exceptional coins (all) and write-up.

What I always liked about Gallienus coins is the multitude of reverse themes. My interest in Imperial coins decreases starting from 3rd century as for my eyes the reverses are variations of same themes (exceptions exist, but they are just exceptions). Not for Gallienus as one can start a collection only from him. Plus the distinctive portrait with his custom neck beard in the shape of grapes

Another thing to mention is that Gallienus coins are usually cheap - so a big plus. No wonder he is represented quite satisfactory in my collection.

Here are my coins from Zoo series.

image.png.62b77458ad680ddd3bfa77cb3e5b9f51.png

Gallienus AE Antoninianus. 260-268 AD. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right / APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, holding globe and reversed rudder. Mintmark H. RIC V 164, Cohen 74, RSC 74. Sear5 10177.

@DonnaMLif you remember discussing about this coin on CT, it was determined that the centaur holds a reversed rudder and not a trophy (as some references claim).

---------------------

image.png.db4929da758f8ab45f476d059c5b5bfa.png

Antoninianus AE
RIC V Gallienus 179, Göbl 745b; RSC 157
Date: 260-268
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, head of Gallienus, radiate, right / Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag, walking right or left, sometimes looking backward
22 mm, 3,50 g

-------------------------

image.png.4acf0838952e42686d16433248b71905.png

Gallienus AD 260-268. Rome
Antoninianus Æ
19 mm, 2,79 g
Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, head of Gallienus, radiate, right / Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, griffin, walking left
RIC V Gallienus 165, RSC 77

---------------------------

image.png.dd17cf57f1da975ddc9efe2ff2366538.png

Gallienus AD 267-268. Rome
Antoninianus Æ
20 mm, 3,82 g
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, bust of Galienus, radiate, right / LIBERO CONS AVG, B in exergue, Panther stalking left
RIC V.1 230

----------------------------

image.png.59993a6ec9b3f477844c646c27906384.png

Gallienus AD 260-268. Rome
Antoninianus Æ silvered
20 mm, 2,88 g
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head of Gallienus right / Rev: SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus flying right.
RIC V Gallienus 283, RSC IV 979

------------------------------------------

image.png.6e7e5e6c7efc20bc5215bd1705e8bd98.png

Gallienus AD 253-268. Rome
Antoninianus Æ
20 mm, 2,05 g
A.D. 267/8. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head of Gallienus right / NEPTVNO CONS AVG, hippocamp swimming right; N. RIC V Gallienus 245.

----------------------------------

Another coin considered part of Zoo series is this one from Salonina. I love the color of this coin.

image.png.950d25685ff1bdcbfb841d2d1d45fdbd.png

Salonina AD 254-268. Rome
Antoninianus Æ
20 mm, 3,00 g
COR SALONINA AVG, bust of Salonina, diademed, draped, right, on crescent / IVNONI CONS AVG, doe, walking left
RIC V Salonina  16

===================================

Legionary series are also a theme I like but from what I've seen these are scarcer and therefore more expensive. On many of them (as proven by Donna's new examples) also the portraits are more realistic and the silvering much better than the random Gallienus coin, so I would say that the quality control on all levels was much better.

I only have one, from my very first lot of ancient coins.

image.png.69f90a8e43837f50f87b999c649168c1.png

2.38 g 21 mm
GALLIENVS AVG. Radiated and cuirassed bust of Gallienus on the right draped over the left shoulder, seen from three quarters forward (B01) / LEG IIII FL VI P VI F. Lion leaping to the right.
Reverse translation: “Legio quarta Flavia sextum pia, sextum fidelis”, (Fourth legion Flavia pious and faithful for the sixth time).  
RIC V-1, Milan 343 (Joint Reign).

I must also mention that I am a big fan of the AETERNITAS coin with she wolf and twins presented by @Curtis JJ. I lost a few examples in auctions (some with excellent condition and silvering). My fault - but this is my collecting strategy - I focus more, in the order of the coins appearing chronologically in auctions, on Greek/Provincial/earlier Imperial so when Gallienus coins appear, my budget is already spent. So many of the ones I have are snacks/"nah can't let it go". In general I quickly forget the coins I didn't win in auctions (it's the best idea) but I regret a little 2 AETERNITAS coins I let go.

What I noticed about this coin type - all I have seen have a HUGE flan and the border fully visible on both sides. This is very unusual for Roman coins, not only for Gallienus.

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You want to see a small stag :classic_biggrin:

 

normal_Gallienus_06_0.jpg.8407a5c658cf6068c09c1cea6a1b3797.jpg

 

Gallienus AD 253-268
Antoninianus, Antioch mint.
Obv.: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust left
Rev.: SAECVLARHS AVG, stag standing right; palm in exergue.
AE, 3,74g, 22mm
Ref.: C.922 var., RIC.656 var., Göbl 1626a (10 ex.), RCV.10290 var., Kamp.: 90.252

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These series always amaze me : some real gems among a lot of poorly struck stuff, and I see here the cream of the cream !

 

Some of mine :

6014060d318d4188bcbba9b866cff12c.jpg

 

15d0d20b1116459e9c6991d5df946039.jpg

 

a440250a273b47f6a3d754e9a98ed7ca.jpg

 

ab656f8b3908485abaa58145e7058b79.jpg

 

2b9ec8de609a468e9818fb03795cf61c.jpg

 

And to finish with the Lupa Romana

01a98abb378f4edb85e4de2efd27ea67.jpg

Q

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Thanks @DonnaML for reopen this interesting discution here , I have followed also the one on CT.

I have a griffin with a supplementary wing , something like a pelvic fin for a fish ,  I didn't find any other similar griffin .

I'm not sure what the engraver wanted to represent ?

 

Gallienus, AE antoninianus, Rome mint. RIC V 165

IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right /

APOLLINI CONS AVG, gryphon walking left. Officina letter Δ in exergue

gallienus 50.jpg

gallienus 51.JPG

Edited by singig
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1 hour ago, singig said:

Thanks @DonnaML for reopen this interesting discution here , I have followed also the one on CT.

I have a griffin with a supplementary wing , something like a pelvic fin for a fish ,  I didn't find any other similar griffin .

I'm not sure what the engraver wanted to represent ?

 

Gallienus, AE antoninianus, Rome mint. RIC V 165

IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right /

APOLLINI CONS AVG, gryphon walking left. Officina letter Δ in exergue

gallienus 50.jpg

gallienus 51.JPG

Interesting. I've never seen one that looks like that. Is it possible that it was tooled to look that way?

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On 8/12/2022 at 2:04 PM, singig said:

Thanks @DonnaML for reopen this interesting discution here , I have followed also the one on CT.

I have a griffin with a supplementary wing , something like a pelvic fin for a fish ,  I didn't find any other similar griffin .

I'm not sure what the engraver wanted to represent ?

 

Gallienus, AE antoninianus, Rome mint. RIC V 165

IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right /

APOLLINI CONS AVG, gryphon walking left. Officina letter Δ in exergue

gallienus 50.jpg

gallienus 51.JPG

That is pretty interesting. I once saw a Gallienus panther coin that almost looked like it had a wing, probably from a break in the die or something. Yours definitely looks intentional.

I have a whole subset of my collection devoted to zoo coins that are unique, quirky, or just interesting. (In my opinion, anyways, because my collection, my rules!)

This one is a little overexposed, but here is a two headed panther/tiger.

PhotoRoom-20220813_193709.png.6a9e8e1c79afe6ec59eb683da2b9beca.png

And a no headed panther.

PhotoRoom-20220814_003843.png.ce3064a49c0fa313db3ae27135894e80.png

A DIANAE coin with some kind of metal tag soldered? Onto it. I have seen another coin with a similar tag, but I forget where.

PhotoRoom-20220813_185953.png.3200380b0bbe1f93417acf27df6c3dad.png

Here's a coin that some ancient citizen liked enough to turn it into a pendant.

PhotoRoom-20220814_003333.png.0d187c4184b84d8d8a403271e957510d.png

This one just had an appealing shape to me.

PhotoRoom-20220814_192515.png.00df867ef4b10dff8edf120eb5367b7b.png

A barbarous imitation.

PhotoRoom-20220814_204948.png.e9899dbbd451317207db6a8a5ad1fd33.png

While not the most interesting, this coin has a stag with such a large head and ear, it almost looks more like a moose.

PhotoRoom-20220814_192148.png.1babb4f3887d730b9a98844a1fc094d7.png

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https://content.invisioncic.com/k321387/monthly_2022_06/6lcmaf.jpg.d37684692ce83206d50ac4ad88e95ff7.jpg

Well, yeah! We pay extra for verdigris! 😉

Gallienus DIANAE CONS AVG antelope left antoninianus.jpg
Gallienus, AD 253-268.
Roman billion antoninianus, 3.33 g, 18.8 mm, 10 h.
Rome, AD 267-268.
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head, right.
Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope walking left; Γ in exergue.
Refs: RIC 181; Göbl 716b(2); Cohen 165; RCV 10200; La Venera 82; Hunter 102.
 
 
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