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River Gods


Sulla80
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"Æolis comes next, formerly known as Mysia, and Troas which is adjacent to the Hellespont. Here, after passing Phocæa, we come to the Ascanian Port, then the spot where Larissa stood, and then Cyme, Myrina, also called Sebastopolis, and in the interior, Ægæ, Attalia, Posidea, Neontichos, and Temnos. Upon the shore we come to the river Titanus, and the city which from it derives its name. "

-Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book 5, 32.1

One way to have an ancient coin collection and not spend too much money: start a collection of "coins of Tisna".  The coins may not be individually cheap but you will have a hard time finding any...  This type in Asia Minor Coins : Coin ID #7772.  My Notes on this coin can be found here: Tisna River God.  Anyone with coins from Kyme/Cyme will recognize the one-handed cup (oinochoe - wine pourer).

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Aeolis, Tisna, 4th century BC, Æ 17.6mm, (3.96g, 5h)

Obv: Head of river god Tisnaios left

Rev: TIΣ/NAION, one-handled cup

 

image.png.a8b95536c1993bafdb21ede22be69750.png

The archeological site was first discovered in 1860 by a French sailor M. Guichon. (See: E. Erdan, 2019).

In a 2006 thesis from Istanbul University, The river-gods in Asia Minor in the light of the coins, Zeynep Sencan Altinoluk identified 77 river gods on coins from Asia Minor.

Post coins of river gods, coins of Aeolis, coins with oinochoae, or anything else you find interesting or entertaining.

Edited by Sulla80
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Nice coin and blog !

 

Here are two river gods:

 

Antoninus_Pius_6.jpg.ad5fa733a6aa320af00ca7bedfe7db5f.jpg

Antoninus Pius
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: ANTWNINOC CEB EVCEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: ΔWΔΕΚ / ATOY / L Iζ, River god Nilus reclining left, resting on inverted vase from which water flows; in right hand cornucopia from which genius with wreath emerges and in left hand reed; below, crocodile.
Billon, 12.47g. 23.1mm
Ref.: Geissen 1594, Milne 1990

 

R651_Marcus_Aurelius_Augusta_Traiana.jpg.30f547cfa7f8ca8ae9c11c23ab54fb2c.jpg

Marcus Aurelius
Thrace, Augusta Traiana
AE17
Obv.: ΑV ΚΑΙ Μ ΑVΡΗ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝ, Bareheaded and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС, River god reclining left, resting elbow upon overturned urn from which liquid flows.
AE, 3.57g, 17mm
Ref.: RPC IV online 10330

 

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This was my Traian Tetradrachm from Antiochia ad Orontem. You can see at the reverse: Tyche of Antioch, walled crown as headdress, draped with chiton and peplos, sitting facing right on rock. In her right hand holding two ears of wheat and a poppy. At her feet the river god Orontes swims to the right, head turned to the left.

The depiction is probably based on a sculpture of Eutychides. Eutychides was an ancient sculptor from Sikyon in Greece. Among his works, the Tyche of Antioch on the Orontes is the only one that could be identified on the basis of coin depictions of the city goddess in the inventory of ancient Roman copies, even if these depict details differently. It shows the goddess of the city newly founded by Antiochos I sitting on a rock, crowned by a city wall reinforced with towers, the personified river Orontes at her feet. The Tyche was considered the most famous work of Eutychides and was still held in high honour by the inhabitants of Antioch in the time of Pausanias in the 2nd century AD.

See it at CollecOnline.

 

6462D009-A0BB-4D06-9357-8C45E2F7F7CF.jpeg

Edited by Prieure de Sion
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Here's a nice representation of Meander.

Hyrgaleis_0.jpg.3bab467dea3d3b6e3334e05ffae5dc40.jpg

Phrygia, Hyrgaleis. Æ24 semi-autonomous issue, ca AD 198-235.

Obv: IEΡA BOYΛH, veiled and draped bust of Boule right.
Rev: YΡΓAΛΛEΩN MAIANΔΡOC, river-god Maeander reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, and resting on vase from which water flows.

 

 

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[IMG]
RI Philip II 244-249 Nisibis Mesopotamia-farthest EAST Temple Tyche river god Mygdonius - sinister left

 


[IMG]
AE OF ANTIOCHEIA, SYRIA

RPC 4252, SNG Cop. 92, 20.4mm, 8.03 grams, Dated year 27 = 5/4 B.C.E.

Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus to right

Reverse: Tyche of Antioch seated to right, holding palm branch; below, river-god Orontes swimming right, in right field, date ZK (year 27 = 5/4 B.C.E.)

Edited by Alegandron
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upload_2021-7-10_9-24-50.png
RI Hanniballianus Caesar Æ Nummus 337 SECVRITAS PVBLICA Euphrates seated Constantinople CONSS Rex Regum of Pontos RIC 147


upload_2021-7-10_9-26-33.png
Sicily Gela AR Litra Horse-Achelous (River God) 0.63g 13mm 465-450 BCE HGC 2 p 373

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Posted (edited)

"Post coins of river gods, coins of Aeolis, coins with oinochoae, or anything else you find interesting or entertaining"

 

Sulla, you had me at AEOLIS ... 

 

 

AEOLIS, Gryneion. Æ11 (below)
4th century BC
Diameter: 11 mm
Weight: 1.63 grams
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo facing slightly left
Reverse: Mussel
Reference: SNG Ashmolean 1447–8; SNG Copenhagen 205–6
Other: 2h ... black patina, a few deposits. Rare

Ex-stevex6

 

Aeolis Gryneion.jpg

 

AEOLIS, Kyme AR Hemiobol (below)

Date: 4th cent. BC

Diameter: 7.14 mm

Weight: 0.37 grams

Obverse: Forepart of horse

Reverse: Stellate floral pattern

References: 

Ex-stevex6

Aeolis Kyme AR Hemiobol.JPG

 

AEOLIS, Aegae: AE18 (below)

3rd Cent. BC

Diameter: 18.1mm

Weight: 3.64 grams

Obverse: Head of Apollo right

Reverse: Goat's head right, AI in circle monogram behind

Reference: SNG von Aulock 1492v (legend, not monogram); SNG Copenhagen 1v (legend, not monogram)

Other: much clearer, more sharply struck, much finer style goat image than usually found on Aeolis Apollo/Goat bronze issues

Ex-stevex6

image.png.e903851cc33320cc07315e8bae953773.pngimage.png.f6fa20c2344da149a792f79207d44ba0.png

 

Oh, sorry => fantastic River God coins, gang!! 

Edited by Steve
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Posted · Supporter

Sweet coins!

IMG_2317.PNG.128d2d6872a1c37c4ddbd25aa15c4e0b.PNG

Aeolis. Kyme ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΩΡΟΣ, magistrate 320-250 BC.

Bronze Æ

17mm., 3,73g.

Eagle standing right, AΠOΛΛOΔOPOΣ above / K-Y, one-handled vase.

good very fine

BMC 28

 

 

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Phrygia Hierapolis 'Pseudo-autonomous': Second or early third century AD 
(Bronze, 5.61g 19mm).
laureateheaded and draped bust of the Demos (bearded), left. ΔΗΜΟϹ
ΙƐΡΑΠΟΛƐΙΤΩΝ ΧΡVϹΟΡΟΑϹ river-god Chrysoroas reclining, left, holding poppy and two ears of corn, resting on water-urn
L. Weber, NC 1913, 18, VIII, no. 3, RPC IV.2, 9989 (temporary) Purchased from Demos Auctions March 2021

IMG_0761(1).PNG.893218b54ceeedacf37bb95d18cd5f34.PNG

Sicily, Gela

420-405 BCE.

Tetras AE

19mm., 3,5g.

Bull standing left; three pellets in exergue / Head of river-god Gelas, barley corn behind.

 

 

 

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Great coin and write up @Sulla80 !

Coins with River gods are fun.  Here are some of mine.

C7EA24BD-8C8A-4532-BCD0-7F02795A9C9E.jpeg.0bca2c3089954647092ff29134728303.jpeg

Roman Empire
Trajan (AD 98-117)
AR Denarius, Rome mint, struck ca. AD 107-108
Dia.: 19.1 mm
Wt.: 2.94 g
Obv.: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P; Trajan laureate bust right, left shoulder draped
Rev.: COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC; Danube, velificatio, reclining on rocks, right hand holding prow of a ship. Left arm resting on overflowing container of water. DANVVIVS in exergue.
Ref.: RIC II 100

7EDC925A-FA40-4D1B-BD85-48389922E8B8.jpeg.0c83eba5afe210957fe62a34a2e8f295.jpeg

Egypt, Alexandria
Antoninus Pius
AE Drachm, Alexandria mint, struck RY 13 (AD 149/50)
Dia.: 34.2 mm
Wt.: 23.9 g
Obv.: ΑVΤΚΤΑΙΛΑΔΡΑΝΤωΝΙΝΟCEBEVC; Laureate head right
Rev.: TPIKA (date) IϚ (16); Nilus reclining left holding reed and cornucopia from which emerges a pekheis; crocodile below; L in left field
Ref.: Emmett 1621.13
Ex Theodosius Collection

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Hadrian Ae Drachm Alexandria 131-132 AD Obv, Bust right laureate draped and cuirassed Rv River god Nilus reclining left  on rocks holding reed and cornucopia . Crocodile below RPC 5791/ 68 This coin illustrated Datarri-Savio 1794 This coin illustrated. 25.83 grms 34 mm Photo by W. Hansenalexhadd4.jpg.27137a328c1f46e3bf9420cb519df44d.jpg

I have always thought that the composition on the reverse of this coin to be superb. I remember seeing on like it about almost 30 years ago and wishing own one like it. I got my chance a few years ago. The reverse of this coin always reminds me of the statue of the Tiber which is at the Louvre in Paris 2123990428_IMG0777.JPG.3fed057ff371d3854d2f93bcf13dcb34.JPGI took this picture on my first trip to Paris. I enjpyed that trip though I wish my pics were better.

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[IMG]
Campania, Neopolis
275-250 BCE
AE 18, 4.99g
Obv: Laureate Head of Apollo, NEOPOLITON (in Greek), Theta at r.
Rev: Achelous advancing r, crowned by flying Nike, IOTA SIGMA under Achelous
Ref: Sambon 663; HN Italy 589; SNG ANS 474; SNG Copenhage - ;
Comment: Achelous was a river god from the Achelous River (largest river in Greece). Derivation of his name predates the Greeks, and later the River God became the god over all rivers, lakes, streams, and waters not controlled by Neptune.
Provenance: Plate coin in Potamikon, number 343 in our catalog so Sambon 663;

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Posted (edited)

An excellent River God /Aeolis pileon!  Unfortunately, I now need to find an AEOLIS, Gryneion, Mussel coin, @Steve.  I'll add another Gela:

image.png.c14a26aa529d56418fe054f6f373a7d3.png

SICILY, Gela, circa 420-405 BC, Æ Tetras (17mm, 3.45g, 12h)

(right) Obv: Bull standing left; olive branch above, three pellets (mark of value) in exergue

(left) Rev: Head of river god right; grain kernel behind

 

Edited by Sulla80
spelling corrected
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My example is from Selinus in Sicily. 

Tetradrachm c. 430 BC.

Obv. Apollo and Artemis in chariot, Apollo drawing a bow.

Rev. Youthful river god Selinus holding laurel branch and phiale over lit altar, cockeral on base. Bull on pedestal and selinon leaf to right.

Selinos_-removebg-preview.png.fbf336a8e981c3480d11fc0a625ff35f.png

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Posted · Benefactor
Posted (edited)

Arethusa ... oh, and her octopus

 

Sicily, Syracuse: AR litra – Arethusa/Octopus (below)

(12 onkia)

466-460 BC

Diameter: 13.1 mm

Weight: 0.67 grams

Obverse: Pearl-diademed head of Arethusa right; ΣVPA before

Reverse: Octopus. 

Reference: SNG Copenhagen 641; SNG ANS 137ff

Ex-stevex6

 

syracuse octopus.jpg

 

... and don't forget Arethusa and her sweet ol' dolphin-wheel

 

 

SICILY - SYRACUSE – HEMILITRON (6 Onkia) ... below

TIME OF DIONYSIOS I

Diameter: 16 mm

Weight: 3.4 grams

Obverse: ARETHUSA

Reverse: WHEEL OF FOUR SPOKES , DOLPHINS

Reference: sng ans 404

Ex-stevex6

 

Syracuse Arethusa Wheel.jpg

 

Eh-heh-heh, I guess she was actually turned into a stream by a River-God (in my books that's still close enough to be in this cool thread)

Cheers

 

Edited by Steve
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Posted (edited)

There ... hopefully, I've redeemed myself?

=> here's Trajan and a River God 

 

 

PHOENICIA, Tyre. Trajan AR Tetradrachm

AD 98-117

Struck AD 110/1

Diameter: 27 mm

Weight: 14.44 grams

Obverse: Laureate head right; below, club left and eagle standing right with wings folded

Reverse: Tyche seated right, foot set on river-god swimming to right below

Reference: McAlee 470 (Antioch); Prieur 1498

Other: 7h ... toned, some porosity, light scratches in field on obverse, slight die shift on reverse

Ex-stevex6

Trajan & Tyche.jpg

Edited by Steve
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My river gods, even though I think they've all been posted already:

Trajan AR Denarius, AD 107 [Sear RCV II], Rome Mint. Obv. Laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder, IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P / Rev. Danuvius (the Danube), naked to waist, reclining with left elbow on rocks amidst reeds, looking right, cloak billowing out in circle behind head, right hand resting on ship behind him with prow in shape of bird’s head (swan?), COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC; in exergue, DANVVIVS. RIC II Trajan 100, RSC II 136 (ill. p. 88), Sear RCV II 3138 (ill. p. 102), BMCRE III 395. 19 mm., 3.05 g. Purchased from Silbury Coins, UK, Jan. 2022.*

image.jpeg.a9df9c577086268a3bfa72db56ef0960.jpeg

*According to Foss at p. 100 [Clive Foss, Roman Historical Coins (Seaby, London, 1990)], this coin (Foss, Trajan No. 22), together with two other types (RIC II 542-544 and RIC 556-569), commemorate the preparations for the second Dacian war in AD 106, including “crossing into Dacia by a bridge and with the aid of the god of the Danube who helped to overcome Dacia.”

Trajan AR Tetradrachm, 112 AD, Seleucis & Pieria, Antioch Mint. Obv. Laureate head right, club below to left and eagle (standing right) below to right, AYTOKP KAIC NER TPAIANOC CEB ΓEPM ΔAK / Rev. Tyche of Antioch, wearing mural crown, seated on rocks, right, holding two ears of wheat and a poppy-head in her right hand, river god Orontes at her feet in river swimming right, looking up at Tyche, left arm extended and left forefinger pointed, ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΙϚ ΥΠΑΤ Ϛ [= TR POT XVI, COS VI]. RPC [Roman Provincial Coinage] Vol. III 3543 (2015); RPC III Online 3543 at https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3543, McAlee 471 (ill. p. 205) (Group 6) [Richard McAlee, The Coins of Roman Antioch (2007)]; Prieur 1499 [Michel and Karin Prieur, Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms (London, 2000)]; Sear GIC 1089 at p. 100 (ill.), attributed to Tyre [D. Sear, Greek Imperial Coins and their Values (1982)]. 25 mm., 13.88 g.

image.jpeg.ee9e2ee7c800e10bc07129ba706a3993.jpeg

Hadrian, Billon Tetradrachm, Year 19 (134/135 AD), Alexandria, Egypt Mint. Obv. Laureate bust left, slight drapery; ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙϹ Τ[ΡΑΙΑΝ] - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹƐΒ (clockwise from upper right) [bracketed portion off flan] / Rev. Slightly draped bust of Nilus right, crowned with taenia and lotus-buds, cornucopiae behind right shoulder; L ЄN NЄAKΔ [= Year 19 spelled out] (clockwise from lower left). RPC [Roman Provincial Coinage] Vol. III 5941 (2015); RPC III Online at https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/5941 ; Köln 1147 [Geissen, A., Katalog alexandrinischer Kaisermünzen, Köln, Band II (Hadrian-Antoninus Pius) (Cologne, 1978, corrected reprint 1987)]; Dattari (Savio) 7450-1 [Savio, A. ed., Catalogo completo della collezione Dattari Numi Augg. Alexandrini (Trieste, 2007)]; K&G 32.619 [Kampmann, Ursula & Ganschow, Thomas, Die Münzen der römischen Münzstätte Alexandria  (2008)]; Milne 1449 at p. 35 [Milne, J.G., Catalogue of Alexandrian Coins (Oxford 1933, reprint with supplement by Colin M. Kraay, 1971)]; Emmett 875.19 [Emmett, Keith, Alexandrian Coins (Lodi, WI, 2001)].  24.5 mm., 13.10 g., 12 h.

 image.jpeg.3597c6574683e69161550a2735608b3b.jpeg

Hadrian, Billon Tetradrachm, Year 22 (137/138 AD), Alexandria, Egypt Mint. Obv. Laureate bust right, ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙϹ ΤΡΑ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹƐΒ / Rev. Nilus seated left on rocks, crowned with lotus-buds, wearing himation around legs and over left arm, holding reed in right hand and cornucopiae in left; crocodile below climbing up rocks; L KB (Year 22) in left field. RPC [Roman Provincial Coinage] Vol. III 6254 (2015); RPC III Online at https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/6254; Emmett 879.22 [Emmett, Keith, Alexandrian Coins (Lodi, WI, 2001)]; Milne 1570 at p. 37 [Milne, J.G., Catalogue of Alexandrian Coins (Oxford 1933, reprint with supplement by Colin M. Kraay, 1971)]; Köln.1241 [Geissen, A., Katalog alexandrinischer Kaisermünzen, Köln, Band II (Hadrian-Antoninus Pius) (Cologne, 1978, corrected reprint 1987)].  24 mm., 12.9 g.image.jpeg.929719d930145d162a51db8c801d8b58.jpeg

Anonymous civic issue, reign of Maximinus II, AE quarter follis [?][Sear] or 1/12 nummus [?][McAlee p. 106], Antioch Mint (3rd Officina), ca. 311-312 AD. Obv. Tyche (city-goddess of Antioch) wearing mural crown, seated facing on rock, holding wheat or  grain ears with right hand and, with left hand, holding a two-handled basket (filled with wheat or grain ears[?]) resting on ground to right, river god Orontes swimming below, GENIO ANTIOCHINI / Rev. Apollo standing left, pouring libation from patera held in right hand, and holding lyre in raised left hand, Γ [gamma, signifying 3rd Officina] in right field, APOLLONI SANCTO around; in exergue, SMA [meaning Sigmata Moneta Antioch (money struck at Antioch) or Sacra Moneta Antioch]. [Not in RIC; see http://www.notinric.lechstepniewski.info/6ant_civ_4v.html.]  Sear RCV IV 14927 (ill); Vagi 2954; McAlee 170(c) (ill. p. 107); Van Heesch Type 3 [Van Heesch, J. "The last civic coinages and the religious policy of Maximinus Daza (AD 312)" in Numismatic Chronicle (1993), pp. 63-75 & Pl. 11]; ERIC II, “Anonymous Religious Coinage of the Fourth Century,” pp. 1198-1199, No. 2. 16 mm., 1.35 g. [Struck either (1) to promote propaganda against Christians and aid in their persecution (and thus traditionally denominated the “Persecution issue”; or (2) as proposed by David Kalina, for use in festivals, including the Festival of Apollo at Daphne, held in conjunction with the Olympics in Antioch in 312 AD. See Kalina, David, “Anonymous Civic Coinage,” Series 1, at http://allcoinage.com/anonymous_civic.php.]

image.jpeg.484737291374e8c10bb81a885467de53.jpeg

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21 hours ago, DonnaML said:

Hadrian, Billon Tetradrachm, Year 22 (137/138 AD), Alexandria, Egypt Mint. image.jpeg.929719d930145d162a51db8c801d8b58.jpeg

The consistency in metal quality clearly wasn't a big priority for the Alexandrian mint or if it was, there wasn't much silver below the surface.  Here's the same coin as yours with much less silver showing.

274614533_HadrianAlexandriaLKBTet.jpg.856074f525bb527e66ad7875c91d21b5.jpg

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25 minutes ago, Sulla80 said:

The consistency in metal quality clearly wasn't a big priority for the Alexandrian mint or if it was, there wasn't much silver below the surface.  Here's the same coin as yours with much less silver showing.

274614533_HadrianAlexandriaLKBTet.jpg.856074f525bb527e66ad7875c91d21b5.jpg

Most of my Roman Alexandrian "billon" tetradrachms show little or no silver(ing) at all, at least after Claudius and Nero. It isn't clear to me if there was ever a subsequent practice of silver-washing them, as with the later Roman antoniniani, or if it was just a case of variability in silver content. 

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Posted (edited)
12 hours ago, DonnaML said:

Most of my Roman Alexandrian "billon" tetradrachms show little or no silver(ing) at all, at least after Claudius and Nero. It isn't clear to me if there was ever a subsequent practice of silver-washing them, as with the later Roman antoniniani, or if it was just a case of variability in silver content. 

My statement may not have been fair to Alexandrian mint workers, who appear to have been reasonably careful in their use of silver content.  Kevin Butcher and Matthew Ponting do a thorough review and analysis of metal content from Egyptian coinage in their excellent (and dense) 2015 book on "Metallurgy of Roman Silver Coinage".   Unfortunately, the analyses reported in their book end with Trajan. 

Here's how I understand the variability (up to Trajan): 

The tetradrachm was approximately 1 denarius in silver from inception under Tiberius and the variation from this standard is about the same as other provincial coinage. There is not good evidence of unusual overvaluation from face value vs. denarius comparing to contemporary provincial coinages.  Debasement was complicated, but roughly follows the pattern of the denarius.   Nero's year 12-14 there is debasement that is temporary. 

Depletion silvering (preferentially removing copper from the surface layer in a alloy flan) was a technique likely known to Roman mints to enrich the surface layer of silver.  The level of silver in the Egyptian tetradrachms during the Roman period was often below the level needed to effectively produce a good silver surface layer.  Complicating any analysis, the effects of centuries of burial (leeching of silver and copper over time) and cleaning (more ways to remove selectively metals from the surface).  These two surface effects yield the variability that we see today in hand. 

I still find the extremes of this e.g. between our two coins from same year, surprising.  Maybe something different going on with these coins of Hadrian?

Edited by Sulla80
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