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Late and very late Roman "provincial" coins


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I would like for this thread to be a fitting counterpart to my thread about the Eastern Imperial coinage of Gallienus and Claudius II (with an extension to Aurelian perhaps), a period that I think is crucial in the shift from local "provincial" coinage in Asia to the Imperial coinage. In some cases, the mints that produced local coinage were repurposed for Imperial issues -- Antioch or Cyzicus being the prime examples for our period, but most of the mints just closed during this period, from the reign of Valerian and Gallienus, the rule of Odenathus in Antioch, the Germanic wars of Claudius and the Imperial coinage reform of Aurelian.

One of these provincial mints, which struck a high volume of coinage throughout the reign of Claudius II is Sagalassos -- a wealthy agricultural and commercial hub in Pisidia. And most of its coinage during this period is the high denomination of 10 assaria (dekassaria):



AE33mm 13.75g brass dekassaria, minted at Sagalassos ca. 268-70.
AVT·K·M·AVP - KΛAVΔION; laureate, draped, cuirassed bust seen from rear
CA-ΓA-ΛACCEΩN, Tetrastyle temple with Tyche standing within, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae, two figures (Dioscuri?) and crescent on globe on pediment; [I in l. field?] - wheat in r. field; rosette-sun countermark on reverse beneath the Tyche; flattened reverse area.
cf. Maerkl 33 p. 21; cf. BMC 55; Howgego 449 for countermark


A late product of the local mint at Sagalassos, the coinage for Claudius II was extensive and likely covered the whole reign of the emperor. Even more, the presence of three types of countermarks on these coins shows perhaps that at a certain point, perhaps even post-270, the coins were re-tariffed, likely to show their relation to the imperial coinage. The revalue might be related to the campaign of Aurelian against Palmyra an/or these coins might have circulated with the new 'aureliani' until ca. after 274. The striking of the countermark also flattened ca. half the reverse.

This particular issue, showing the 'Tychaion of Sagalassos' corresponds to a tradition in local Greek coinage of showing particular local symbols that adhered to a certain civic identity. In this respect, the Tychaion is a known and celebrated monument, inscribed in the more ample tradition of similar local monuments in the East, but also specific enough to Sagalassos to be individualized as a civic and religious symbol by the local elite. More reading on the Tyche from P. Talloen - The Tychaion of Sagalassos: The Cultural Biography of an Emblematic Monument, pp. 261-304.


If you have "provincial" coinage from the late 250s up to 270 and would like to share it, please do.

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The mint at Alexandria, Egypt, was still striking at this time, of course.

But so was Alexandria Troas!

Valerian I, AD 253-260,
Roman provincial AE 19 mm, 4.83 g, 7 h.
Troas, Alexandria Troas, AD 253-260.
Obv: IMP LICINI VALERIANV, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: COL AVG TRO, horse feeding, right.
Refs: BMC 17.29, 159; cf: Bellinger A 436, SNG von Aulock 7573, SNG Copenhagen 191, Mionnet Suppl. V 313-314 (variations of inscriptions).

Time of Valerian I to Gallienus, AD 253-268.
Roman provincial Æ 20.1 mm, 4.49 g, 1 h.
Troas, Alexandria Troas, AD 253-268.
Obv: CO-L TROAD, turreted and draped bust of Tyche, right, with vexillium inscribed AV/CO over shoulder.
Rev: COL AVG, Horse grazing right, TRO in exergue.
Refs: Bellinger A486; SNG Copenhagen 108-113; SNG von Aulock 1466; SNG Tübingen 2533; BMC 48 var.


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That is an impressive coin @seth77!  Coins from the end of an era.


I just recently acquired this Gothicus and Gallienus.


Pisidia, Antioch. Claudius II Gothicus AE23. 268-270 AD. Anthios reclining.

Obv: IMP CAERAS CLOVNAH[...], radiate, draped bust right.
Rev: ANTIOCH [..], river-god Anthios reclining left, holding cornucopiae and resting arm on overturned urn from which waters flow., S-R in exergue.



Pisidia, Antiochia. Gallienus (253-268). Ae.

Obv: INP CAISAR GALIHNVS. Radiate head right.
Rev: ANTIOCH CL SR. Vexillum between two signa.

Edited by AncientOne
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4 hours ago, Roman Collector said:


The mint at Alexandria, Egypt, was still striking at this time, of course


Agree with the implication that Egypt stuff is outside the scope of this thread. Not that that will stop our die-hard Roman Egypt fans. 😁

Great topic, great OP coin, and I have a couple things to post. But my fricken’ computer’s on the fritz, aaaargh!  Dunno how you guys do this on a phone. 😵💫


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2 minutes ago, Nerosmyfavorite68 said:

This is a cool thread.  How early is the cutoff for late? 

I'd like to collect the larger coins of this period, but I don't know how to search for them.  Is there a search term that would yield many results?  For instance, Varb* or Moush* yields a lot of balkan AE.

For me? Most of my collecting interest is BCE. Ergo, 1 AD is Modern for me...


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CILICIA, Corycus. Valerian I, AD 253-260. Obverse: Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust of Valerian seen from the front. Reverse: Dionysus wearing nebris, holding thyrsus & wine skin over panther; to left, a large agnostic crown with a caduceus, palm branch & apulstre, set on a three legged table. AE Octassarion: 23.48 gm, 34 mm, 6 h. SNG BN 1122; SNG von Aulock 5686. Ex CNG Electronic Auction 112, lot 128, April 13, 2005


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Not counting Roman Egypt, my latest Provincial is also from Alexandria Troas -- using Latin rather than Greek because of its status as a colony. I'm particularly fond of the reddish color. 

Anonymous colonial civic issue, AE 23, 251 - 260 AD (Trebonianus Gallus to Valerian I), Troas, Alexandria Troas Mint. Obv. Draped bust of Tyche right, wearing mural crown, vexillum inscribed CO AV over right shoulder, CO ALEX TR / Rev. Horse (of Erichthonius?)* grazing to right, COL AVG, TROAD in exergue. RPC IX 505 (see https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/9/505); Bellinger A486 [Alfred A. Bellinger, Troy, The Coins (Princeton 1961)]; BMC 17 Troas, 46 var. [diff. legends]; see also id. 45, 47-50 var. [Warwick Wroth,  A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Vol. 17, Troas, Aeolis, and Lesbos (London 1894)]; SNG Copenhagen 108-113 [Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Copenhagen, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Part 20, Troas (1945)]. 23 mm., 5.80 g.  Ex: Pars Coins; Ex: Kenneth W. Dorney.


* See BMC 17 Troas at xviii, citing Cavedoni (Spicil., p. 151) for the suggestion that the grazing horse, first depicted on the coins of Alexandria Troas ca. 300 BCE, is one of the horses of Erichthonius, father of Tros, after whom Troas was named.

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My latest is this Aurelian from Cremna/Kremna in Pisidia, with Apollo stringing his bow on the reverse:


It's a nice chonky coin at 31mm, and reasonably available.  This late, it appears only a few cities in Pisidia and I think one other province (other than Egypt of course) were issuing local coinage.  A few examples exist for Tacitus as well, but they are unobtanium as far as I can tell.

The most easily found very late provincial coin, I believe, is this issue of Claudius II, also from Pisidia namely Pisidian Antioch:


Savoca et al. have sold hundreds of these over the last few years.

On 6/5/2022 at 9:54 AM, seth77 said:

Even more, the presence of three types of countermarks on these coins shows perhaps that at a certain point, perhaps even post-270, the coins were re-tariffed, likely to show their relation to the imperial coinage. The revalue might be related to the campaign of Aurelian against Palmyra an/or these coins might have circulated with the new 'aureliani' until ca. after 274.

This is fascinating!  I wonder what the exchange rate was?

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Great coin-thread, Seth ...oh, and sweet coin

Ummm, I also have a few Troas ex-examples to show-off



TROAS, Alexandria Troas (below)

Pseudo-autonomous issue, Æ As

Circa mid 3rd century AD

Diameter: 19 mm

Weight: 4.27 grams

Obverse: Turreted and draped bust of Tyche right; vexillum behind

Reverse: She-wolf standing right, suckling the twins Remus and Romulus

Reference: Bellinger A495; SNG Copenhagen 104-7

Other: 10h … green patina with some areas of red

 Ex-stevex6 … from the Ronald J. Hansen Collection

Troas Tyche and Suckling Wolf.jpg


TROAS, Alexandria Troas Æ (below)

Pseudo-autonomous issue

Circa mid 3rd century AD

Diameter: 21 mm

Weight: 6.01 grams

Obverse: Turreted and draped bust of Tyche right, with vexillum over shoulder

Reverese: Horse grazing right

Reference: Bellinger A486; SNG von Aulock 1466; BMC 46; SNG Copenhnagen 108

Other: 6h, attractive brown patina, light adjustment marks. Nice surfaces


tyche & horse.jpg


Troas Alexandria Æ20 (below)

Date: circa 253-268 AD

Size: 20.64 mm
Weight: 5.14 grams
Obverse: CO TROA, Turreted draped bust of Tyche right
Reverse: CO-L AV TRO, Eagle with open wings standing right on head of Bull
Attribution: SNG von Aulock 7553
Description: A bold bronze with sharp detail and lots of eye appeal


Tyche & Eagle.jpg

Edited by Steve
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I was going to post this in the "post it and pick it" thread when asked for a large provincial, but I got scooped by @shanxi. So, I'm posting it here!

Cornelia Salonina from Side in Pamphylia, purchased at a brick and mortar shop in the 1990s:

Cornelia Salonina, AD 253-268.
Roman provincial Æ decassarion, 18.56 g, 28.8 mm, 12 h.
Pamphylia, Side AD 260-268.
Obv: ΚΟΡΝΗΛΙΑ CΑΛΩΝΙΝΑ CЄΒΑ, diademed and draped bust, r., I (=10) before
Rev: CΙΔΗΤΩΝ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Apollo standing, facing, head l., holding patera and resting on scepter surmounted by flower(?)
Refs: Lindgren III 669; SNG von Aulock 4861 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 429; SNG PFPS 872; BMC --; Sear GIC 4676 var.

Edited by Roman Collector
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These Antioch of Pisidia post 250s are so many and so distinct in their weirdness that they really stand out, even in this very heterodox era which ended the local "provincial" coinage in the East. This Valerian(?) issue for instance, with its IMP CAE P AELL OVAΛEPIAN legend using both Latin and Greek characters has been also attributed to Aemilian (Krzyzanowska 1970) -- @AncientOne noted above one with a very similar legend as Claudius II:


AE22mm 5.75g

The bust on this spec sure resembles some depictions of Claudius II but I'm not sure if there is any recent research tying these to Claudius rather than Valerian in the (perhaps late) 250s. There's of course Maerkl, but that is 120+ years ago, and he interpreted a similar legend as IMP CAERAS CLOV... which is likely the interpretation that @AncientOne favors in his reply.

Another interesting dimension here is the S - R marking (possibly for Senatus Romanus), which makes sense, Pisidia was part of the senatorial province of Asia even through the crisis of the 3rd century. If this interpretation is true, then it could be connected to the SPQR marking on the Imperial radiates started under Gallienus in 268 and continued at Smyrna until the end of the year under Claudius II, that is the SPQR on the 'antoniniani' might hint to the fact that the mint was under the Roman Senate, as Antioch in Pisidia, although it minted a different type of coinage completely.


Edited by seth77
corrected the obverse legend
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Now, going through Maerkl, acsearch (all emperors 251 to 270) and Dane's spreadsheet for 'three standards' coinage, I think that the coin above can be dated around 253, so soon after Valerian took power. The main arguments are 2:

1. the obverse legend does have an unlikely form for Valerian P AELL OVAΛEPIAN, a form that might be residual from the coinage of Aemilian

2. the reverse legend with the strange spelling ANTIOC - CH L CO and the S - R above exergual line is the regular type minted for Aemilian

This issue was then started soon after the death of Aemilian in September 253. But for how long? Well, that's also hard to say for certain. Considering that most issues of Valerian have different reverse legend configurations, it could point to a brief period - among hundreds of specimens I looked at, I found 1 double die-match, see here. On the other hand, the obverse is used more regularly, among many other specimens, for instance here, here, here, here, here.

At the same time(?), with the older Aemilian reverse die(s) there was another issue, possibly the first one struck with new obverse legend close to the Imperial form IMP C P LICINNIVS VALERIANVS and a new Imperial effigy, see here, and here. Very possibly these two Valerian issues and the Aemilian issue spanned the second half of 253.

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Thanks for the correction @seth77!  I didn't go much deeper than the Wildwinds page when identifying this one and should have known better because it was the only one with a semi-normal portrait of Gothicus.


Here's a few more.


Bithynia, Nicaea. Valerian (253-260). AE26

Obv: ΠΟV ΛΙΚ ΟVΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΟC CEB / Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, raising hand and holding eagle-tipped sceptre over shoulder.
Rev: NIKAIEΩN / Gallienus and Valerian I facing each other in military dress, clasping hands and each holding a spear; Valerian II, togate, standing left, holding patera.
Cf. SNG Copenhagen 536.



Cilicia, Anemurium. Gallienus. AD 253-268.

Obv: Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Artemis advancing right, holding bow in extended hand and drawing arrow from quiver; stag at feet to left; ЄT B (date) in legend.
SNG France –; cf. SNG Levante 522 (dated RY 3); SNG Levante Supp. –.
Dated RY 2 (AD 254/5).



Cilicia, Antiocheia ad Cragum. Valerian AE32
Date: 253 / 260
Category: Person: Valerian I
ObvType: Valerian bust r.
RevType: eagle
SNG von Aulock 5530; SNG Levante 478



Cilicia, Colybrassus. Trebonianus Gallus AE22.

Obv: AYTKRA KAI Γ ΛOY TΡE ΓAΛΛON CB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: KOΛYBΡACCEΩN, Athena, helmeted, walking left, looking right, holding patera and transverse spear.



Cilicia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum. Gallienus. Æ27. Athena/anguipede Giant

Obv: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Athena advancing right, brandishing spear and shield at anguipede Giant, raising both hands.
27mm, 7.9 gm.
SNG Levante 789



Cilicia, Tarsus. Herennia Etruscilla, AE29

Obv: EΡEΝΝΙΑΝ ΑΙΤΡΟΥCΚEΙΛΛΑΝ CE Diademed and draped bust of Herennia Etruscilla to right, resting on a crescent.
Rev: ΤΑΡCΟΥ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛEΩC, Α / Μ / Κ - Γ / Β Dionysos standing left, holding kantharos in right hand and thyrsos in left; at feet to left, panther.
RPC IX 1371.



Ionia, Miletos. Gallienus AE21. Diogenous Dionysiou

Obv: AVT K ΠO ΛIK ΓAΛΛIHN, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right.
Rev: EΠI AP ΔIOΓE MIΛHCIΩN. Cult statue of Artemis facing, holding patera in right hand and bow with left.
Magistrate: Diogenous Dionysiou.
BMC 167.



Lesbos, Mytilene. AE20, ca AD 250-268

Mytilene, Lesbos. AE20, ca AD 250-268, time of Valerian to Gallienus. 2.4gm. Head of Zeus Ammon right with horn of Ammon / MUTILH-NAIWN, bearded herm of Dionysos facing, on prow, bunch of grapes at lower left. BMC 184



Mysia, Lampsacus. AE21. Volusian

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ ΟΥΙΒΙ ΟΛΟССΙΑΝ. laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Volusian, r.
Rev: ΛΑΝΨΑΚΗΝ. Tyche standing l., holding rudder and cornucopia.
RPC 389, 6



Mysia, Parion. AE22 Gallienus

Obv: Emperor bust r.
Rev: Capricorn r. with globe, ladder below, CGIH.
Celtic unofficial issue. Same rev. as Cornelia Supera, SNG von Aulock 7448.



Mysia, Parion. Bust of Parios AE22. Capricorn.

Obv: Youthful male head r. of founder Parios.
Rev: CGIHP / Capricorn r., holding globe, behind cornucopia.
Time of Valerian (253 to 260 A.D.)



Phrygia, Acmoneia. Salonina

Obv: KOP. CALWNINA / CEB. Diad. amd dr. bust r.
Rev: AKMONEWN. Four ears of grain bound together.
Von Aulock 3385



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What I noticed in my short time since I got interested in Roman "provincial" coinage is that some cities have extensive coinages with a steady output spanning sometimes hundreds of years, while others seem to have had small-scale operations with few issues and minting in-between. Sagalassos or Antioch in Pisidia have such rich and steady outputs so late in the period (Tarsos and it seems Nicaea too up to early 260s), while the mints in Lycaonia for instance seem to work just occasionally with a generally small(er) output.

Although generally denominated in assaria, the "provincial" coinage from places like Sagalassos and Tarsos or Nicaea must have had a rather strong connection to the Imperial coinage and some sort of exchange system and rates, probably more complex than in places such as Antioch in Pisidia, where the coinage was "Roman" although blundered, and with far less multiple-submultiple intricacies. Which brings me to a side-point: my initial intuition was that "provincial" coinage in the East disappeared with Aurelian's reform of the Imperial "radiates" ("antoniniani") -- but most mints don't go as far as to mint for Aurelian, although they had a very strong output for Claudius II (Sagalassos or Antioch). So my intuition now tells me that sometime during the reign of Claudius or very soon after, the "provincial" coinage's undervaluation in exchange to the Imperial coinage (which had been heavily debased by this time) became untenable and the local issuing authorities just stopped the minting. This would make the general shift from "provincial" to Imperial coinage in the 260s-270s less a politically influenced development and more of a result of economic laws.

Edited by seth77
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  • 1 month later...

Not very late, nor pretty, but this one is rather interesting:



Trebonianus Gallus (251-253)
AE25mm 12.38g brass (orichalcum) (multiple) assarion, minted at Neapolis ca. 251-2AD.
ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ Γ ΟΥΙ ΤΡƐΒ ΓΑΛΟϹ ϹƐΒ; laureate and cuirassed bust r. with paludamentum, seen from front
ΦΛ ΝƐΑϹΠΟΛƐⲰϹ; Mount Gerizim with temple in perspective, and altar (on the l.), steep stairway and colonnade; below, eagle facing, head l., spreading wings to emcompass the mount and its temples.
RPC IX 2147, Harl 115-7

It's a local coinage of Neapolis (Nablus) in Syria Palaestina. The Greek coinage for Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian is very plentiful, after a hiatus of minting during the reign of Traian Decius. Harl advances the possibility that Decius stripped the town of its colony status which had been bestowed to it by Philip I. This explains the lack of coinage for Decius and the Greek coinage for Gallus without the COL(onia) legend. Considering the corpus of coins known for Neapolis for Gallus and Volusian in Greek compared with the small number of coins with Latin legends, likely minted after regaining its colonial status, the date for this should be at least 252, leaving ca. 2 years of Greek coinage vs 1 year or less for Latin coinage after ca. 252.

This obverse legend marked by RPC and Harl is recorded in 3specs in Harl and 7 in RPC (including Harl 117, also noted in RPC). Not a particularly important variation in the high volume minting for this type. Nonetheless, the iconography with deep local features -- Mount Gerizim and its temple and shrine -- is rather striking and interesting.

Edited by seth77
a less bad picture
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  • 1 month later...

I was having second thoughts about where to post this coin, here or in the thread dedicated to Iconium, but the SR in exergue makes it clear that it deserves to be here:


AE23mm 5.72g
IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF A[VG]; radiate, draped, cuirassed bust r. seen from back
ICON[..]NSI C - OLO; Tyche seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel below seat.
SR in exergue
SNG von Aulock 5392, similar spec here, same dies = same dies with von Aulock spec


This is a regular colonial coinage for Valerian, introduced very likely perhaps as early as 254 -- as it follows the eastern obverse titles of 253-4 (IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG). The SR is present here as on the type from Antiochia Pisidia, probably for Senatus Romanus, marking the coinage as colonial Roman and its likely connection to the Imperial denominations. There is a parallel issue for Gallienus with the same reverse, probably their first coinage here. This is a standard reverse, similar in purpose to the coinage of Antioch Pisidia; also the two coinages share other features: the SR connecting them with Roman Imperial denominations (perhaps), the radiate effigy (specific to Imperial antoniniani) and very close diameter and weight.

Edited by seth77
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On 6/5/2022 at 6:54 PM, seth77 said:


If you have "provincial" coinage from the late 250s up to 270 and would like to share it, please do.

all from the time range



Valerian I
Obv.: A K Π ΛI OΥAΛEΡIANOC EΥEΥC,Laureate and cuirassed bust of Valerian I right
Rev.: Eagle standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, year L - Є across fields (year 5 = 257-258 AD.)
Billon, 10.8g, 21.8mm
Ref.: Köln 2868, Dattari 5185, Kampmann&Ganschow 88.29, Emmett 3705



Valerian I
Ionia, Ephesos.
(AD 253-260)
Obv: AYT K ΠO ΛIKINI OYAΛEPIANOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: EΦECIΩN A ACIAC, Artemis seated on stag right; holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver.
AE, 8.68g, 25mm
Ref.: Karwiese 1136 (V12/R54); BMC -; SNG von Aulock -



Alexandria, year 15 = AD 267/268
Obv.: ΑVT K Π ΛIK ΓAΛΛIHNOC CЄB, laureate and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: LIЄ = year 15, eagle, wings closed, standing left on thunderbolt, wreath in beak, palm in field right
Billon, 11.96g, 22.8mm
Ref.: Geissen III 2944; Kampmann 90.97



Billon tetradrachm
Obv.: KOPNHΛIA CAΛWNEINA CEB, diademed and draped bust right
Rev.: Eagle standing left, LIΔ (year 14, 266/267), palm right
Billon, 9,69g, 22.3mm
Ref.: Geißen 2977 f., Dattari 5345, BMC 2253, Milne 4134



Caria, Antiochia ad Maeandrum
AE 35
Obv.: ΑΥ Κ Π ΓΑΛΛΙΗΝΟΣ, Radiate, helmeted, and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Rev.: ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ, Bridge spanning the Maeandrus river; gateway to bridge to left, surmounted by stork standing right; on parapet, river-god Maeandrus reclining left, holding reed and cornucopia.
AE, 22.11g, 35.4mm
Ref.: SNG von Aulock 2430



Edited by shanxi
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@Severus Alexander brought this type to my attention, in the context of the likely last issues of local colonial issues at Alexandria Troas, sometime after 260:



AE26mm 9.20g, copper multiple, minted ca. 260 and after
IMP GALL[IENVS] or similar, laureate head in truncation r.
[TROA] or similar, turreted, draped bust of Tyche r. with vexillum inscribed AV/CO behind
cf. SNG von Aulock 7574, Bellinger Troy A466

I will return to this after more research for 2 main reasons: 1. this is an issue that continues possibly late into Gallienus reign and this spec seems to have an unrecorded bust variation with head in truncation rather than the more regular bust r. seen from back, which is also a later feature on the antoninianii of Gallienus -- likely post 264/5 and 2. the pairing of Gallienus with the bust of Tyche this late seems almost like a pairing of two obverses, one with the Imperial figure and another for the 'pseudo-autonomous' coinage.


PS: This was advertised as 'Coela' which might be why nobody showed any interest in it and I got at the starting price.

Edited by seth77
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This is a great topic and I enjoyed reading it. Many thanks @seth77

When I started collecting, Provincial coins were not my main point of interest but shortly I grew fond of them and they became my favorites.

It's interesting that my personal order of preferences was 1. Imperial 2. Greek 3. Republican 4. Provincial but now the order is reversed.

As checked, I don't have many provincial coins from 250-270. I intend to buy some Anazarbus coins as I think this is a very interesting mint.

I don't know if Antioch tetradrachms can be considered relevant, but here is my Decius from Antioch



If a small derrogation is allowed, here is an Otacilia Severa coin from Tarsus





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