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Coins of "The House of Valentinian."

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In a recent CoinWeek article, Mike Markowitz looks at coinage of the late Roman Empire in "The House of Valentinian." Nineteen great coins are pictured along with history of rulers from Valentinian I through Valentinian III and their progeny.

Lineage chart of the House of Valentinian and Theodosian Dynasties.

I'm not big into coins of the Dominate, but I have a few from this dynasty. Let's see yours!

Valentinian I:




Valentinian II:


Theodosius I:


Aelia Flaccilla:




Aelia Eudoxia:




Aelia Pulcheria:



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Eh, slim pickins' when it comes to 5th century western Roman coins. Nice ones are so rare and expensive :'-(

Here's the only two in my collection so far. Gunning after a Julius Nepos in the current Roma sale but doubt I'll get it.



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The article consists mostly of short historical summaries of each emperor's reign as well as some remarks on recent auction results. I enjoyed looking at the accomapnying coin pictures, though. The article illustrates some very beautiful and scarce pieces that most of us can only dream of.


Even my better coins of this dynasty are all a bit more pedestrian:


Valens, Roman Empire, AE3, 367–375 AD, Aquileia mint. Obv: DN VALENS PF AVG; bust of Valens, draped, cuirassed, and pearl-diademed, r. Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE; Victory advancing l., holding wreath and palm; in exergue, SMAQP. 18mm, 2.75g. Ref: RIC IX Aquileia 12B.


Valentinian I, Roman Empire, AE4, 364–367 AD, Thessalonica mint. Obv: DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG; bust of Valentinian I, draped, cuirassed, and pearl-diademed, r. Rev: RESTITVTOR REIP; emperor, head r., standing facing, holding labarum and Victory on globe; in exergue, TES(A/B?). 15mm, 1.80g. Ref: RIC IX Thessalonica 17A.


Gratian, Roman Empire, AE3, 367–375 AD, Siscia mint. Obv: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG; bust of Gratian, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed, r. Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM; emperor advancing r., dragging captive with r. hand and holding labarum in l.; in fields, F – R/c on R; in exergue, ΔSISCϟ. 17mm, 2.67g. Ref: RIC IX Siscia 14C: Subtype xxxv.


Valentinian II, Roman Empire, AE2, 378–383 AD, Cyzicus mint. Obv: DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG; bust of Valentinian II, helmeted, draped, cuirassed, r., holding spear. Rev: GLORIA ROMANORUM; emperor standing on ship l., head r., with Victory standing at the helm l.; in field l., wreath; in exergue SMKΔ. 24mm, 4.95g. Ref: RIC IX Cyzicus 14b.


Theodosius I, Roman Empire, AE 2, 378–383 AD, Siscia mint. Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG; bust of Theodosius I, diademed, draped and cuirassed, r. Rev: REPARATIO REIPVB; Emperor, head r., standing facing, holding standard and globe; in exergue, ANTA. 22mm, 4.48g. Ref: RIC IX Antioch 68A.


Aelia Flaccilla, Roman Empire, AE2, 383–388, Cyzicus mint. Obv: AEL FLACCILLA AVG; bust of Aelia Flaccilla, with elaborate headdress, draped, necklace, and mantle, r. Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE; empress, head r., standing facing, arms folded on breast; in exergue, SMKΓ. 22mm, 4.32g. Ref: RIC IX Cyzicus 24.


Arcadius, Roman Empire, AE2, 392–395 AD, Nicomedia mint. Obv: D N ARCADI-VS P F AVG; bust of Arcadius, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed, r. Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM; emperor, head r., standing facing, holding standard and globe. Ref: RIC IX Nicomedia 46B. 21.5mm, 5.23g.


Theodosius II, Roman Empire, AE3/4, 401–403 AD, Antioch mint. Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; ust of Theodosius II, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed, facing front, holding spear in r. hand behind head and shield decorated with cross on l. arm. Rev: CONCORDIA AVGG; Constantinopolis, helmeted, draped, enthroned, enthroned, facing front, head r., holding long sceptre in r. hand and Victory on globe in l. hand; beneath her r. foot, prow; in exergue, ANT(Γ?). Ref: RIC X Arcadius 100.

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I have what I think is a Valentinian III - it is in wretched condition, but that seems to be the norm for these shoddy coins.  My attribution could be wrong - my guesswork is below (note @Valentinian's site is very helpful - thank you, @Valentinian):


Valentinian III?   Æ 10 (425-435 A.D.)   Rome Mint? [D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG?], pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / [V]ICTOR-[IA AVGG], Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm, Ɛ in left field, [RM in exergue?]. RIC X Valentinian III 2121?. (1.36 grams / 10 mm) eBay Jan. 2023        

Attribution Notes: "Primarily at Rome. Struck for Honorius, Theodosius II, Johannes, and Valentinian III." (augustuscoins)

Types with Ɛ in left field:

RIC X Val. III 2118 (PLA)

RIC X Valentinian III 2121

RIC X Honorius 1357 (408 - 423 A.D.)

RIC X Johannes 1909 (Theo. II)

RIC X Johannes 1910 (423 - 425 A.D.)



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The Valentinians and the Theodosians make a very generous numismatic theme, but I am going to add just some stuff that hasnt been already added:

Gratian for his quindecennalia c. 380-2

Valentinian II for his decennalia c. 383-5,
val2alex.JPG.54091b6c8991b72651b2a7086f22d47c.JPG      from Alexandria, struck with a die made by a guy who was quasi latilliterate.


Theodosius II c. 425-35 from a unrecorded issue of Nicomedia lacking any officina mark:



Valentinian III from Cyzicus c. 425-35, but likely 425 for the elevation of Val. III as Augustus in the West under Eastern auspices:

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A.D. 364- 378
Ӕ2 22mm 4.4g
D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
GLORI-A ROMA-NORVM; campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors; S above.
In ex. SMTR
RIC IX Trier 29b




Theodosius I
A.D. 379- 383
AR Siliqua 17mm 1.9g
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
VOT V MVLT X surrounded by laurel wreath.
In ex. T Chi-Rho E
RIC IX Thessalonica --




Theodosius I
A.D. 384- 388
18x20mm 2.3g
D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped in imperial mantle, holding mappa and scepter.
GLORIA REI-PVBLICE; campgate with two turrets, Staurogram (Tau-Rho) between them; B in left field.
In ex. TES
RIC IX Thessalonica 59b




Valentinian III
A.D. 425-455
10x11mm 1.2gm
[D N VALEN AVG]; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
[CAST] VIC; camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above.
RIC X Rome 2163



Edited by Victor_Clark
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This is an area where my collection still needs developing. 

Valens - a very special coin for me because this was the first ancient coin I ever had in my hand:








Aelia Flaccilla:



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Here's an unusual reverse type from Theodosius II and one of Eudocia:

Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: GLORORVI-S TERRAR; Emperor standing facing holding standard and cross on globe

Ref: RIC X421/3


An AV Tremissis of Aelia Eudocia:

Obv: AEL EVDOCIA AVG; Draped bust right

Rev: Cross within wreath, CONOB(star) in exergue

Ref: RIC 281


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23 minutes ago, Victor_Clark said:

A.D. 364- 378
Ӕ2 22mm 4.4g
D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
GLORI-A ROMA-NORVM; campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors; S above.
In ex. SMTR
RIC IX Trier 29b

That's a wonderful coin. Not everyone reading about it will realize that is is larger (22 mm) than AE3's and very rare (I don't have one!) and the third coin down in that post (Theodosius with bust left) is also rare and highly desirable. They are types 10 and 37 on my page:



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Below are my four coins of Valentinian dynasty, all of which are in silver.

1. Siliqua of Valentinian I from the Thessalonica mint ex Harptree Hoard


2. Miliarense of Valens from the Trier mint


3. Siliqua of Gratian from the Trier mint also ex Harptree hoard


4. Siliqua of Valentinian II from the Lugdunum mint


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I have quite a bit from the Valentinians up to 400, although nothing rare (unless Magnus Maximus counts as Theodosius I's 'brother'). 25% of the silver and gold was buried in England. The drop in silver coin production after the Romans left may be to do with their loss of the British silver mines.

With all the different emperors flying around, there's quite a bit of debate about who all the Gs in AVGGG are meant to refer to.

Gratian Siliqua, 367-375
Treveri. Silver, 2.03g. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; DN GRATIA-NVS P F AVG. Roma seated left, holding Victory and sceptre; VRBS - ROMA, mintmark TRPS (RIC 27f). From the Otterbourne (Hampshire) Hoard 1978 (PAS: IARCH-1D7C98).

Honorius Æ4, 408-423
Heraclea. Bronze, 1.77g. Bust of Honorius, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed, right, star behind; D N HONORI-VS P F AVG. Honorius and Theodosius II standing facing, heads toward one another, each holding a spear in outer hand and holding a globe between them with inner hands; GLORIA RO-MANORVM; SMHA in exergue (RIC X Theodosius II (East), 407). Found in Britain.

Valens Imitation Siliqua,377-383
Imitating Trier. Silver, 18mm, 2.18g. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; D N VAPGN-SI P F AVG. Roma seated left on throne, holding inverted spear and Victoriola on globe; VRBS ROMA; TRPS in exergue (cf RIC IX 27). From the Colkirk (Norfolk) Hoard 2020, deposited 402 (PAS: NMS-AC7F17).

Theodosius I Æ3, 378-383
Cyzicus. Bronze, 17mm, 2.64g. Bust of Theodosius I, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed, right; D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG. Roma, helmeted, head left, seated facing on throne, holding globe and partly seen spear, right leg bare; CONCOR-DIA AVGGG; SMKA (RIC IX, 17C). Found near Harrogate, Yorkshire.

Arcadius Clipped Light Siliqua, 395-402
Mediolanum. Silver, 11mm, 0.66g (clipped down from 15mm, 0.95g). Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right; DN ARCADI-VS PF AVG. Roma seated left on cuirass/throne holding Victory on globe and inverted spear; VIRTVS ROMANORVM (RIC X, 1227). Found in Yorkshire.

Theodosius II Æ4, 425-435
Cyzicus. Bronze, 11mm, 1.13g. Theodosius II, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed, right; D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG. Cross within a wreath; SMKA (RIC X, 449). Found Oxfordshire.

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CoinWeek has a series of articles on ancient coins. One recent article is on coins of the "House of Valentinian."


The illustrated coins are gold or silver. The inexpensive copper coins are not emphasized (only one is illustrated). But, each emperor is discussed and the coins are beautiful!

Edited by Valentinian
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I don't actively collect "Late Roman" coins anymore, but I have managed to accumulate a modest number of coins issued by the emperors from Valentinian I through Arcadius & Honorius. (Magnus Maximus omitted, and writeups omitted except for the basic identifications, since I've posted all of them before.) I still have my eye out for a decent Theodosius II, but that's about it in terms of wanting to add to what I already have.

Valentinian I, AV Solidus, 365 AD [Sear, Depeyrot] (reigned 364-375 AD), Antioch Mint, 3rd Officina.


Valentinian I (reigned AD 364-375), AR reduced siliqua, Arles (Arelate/Constantina) Mint, 1st Officina, AD 364-367.


Valens (brother of Valentinian I, reigned AD 364-378), AR reduced Siliqua, AD 364-367, Rome Mint.


Valens (younger brother of Valentinian I, reigned as Emperor in East AD 364-378), AV Solidus, Treveri (Trier) Mint, 1st Officina, issued 376 - mid-377 AD after death of Valentinian I (depicting Valens & Gratian on reverse).


Gratian, AR reduced Siliqua, AD 368-375, Trier Mint [Emperor in West, AD 367-383].


Gratian, AE Maiorina, AD 379-383, Siscia [Sisak, Croatia] Mint, 1st Officina.


Valentinian II, AR reduced Siliqua, AD 375-392, Siscia Mint. 


Theodosius I, AE3 (Sear: Centenionalis), AD 379-383 [Emperor AD 379-395], Alexandria mint, 3rd Officina. 


Theodosius I, AR reduced Siliqua, AD 379-383 (Aquileia Mint) [Emperor AD 379-395). 


Aelia Flaccilla (first wife of Theodosius I and mother of Arcadius & Honorius), AE maiorina, AD 383-386, Alexandria mint, 2nd Officina.


Eastern Roman Empire, Arcadius (son of Theodosius I and older brother of Honorius, Emperor AD 383-408 [383-395 with father Theodosius I]), AE Maiorina, Alexandria Mint (4th Officina), AD 383-386. 


Eastern Roman Empire, Arcadius (son of Theodosius I and older brother of Honorius, Emperor 383-408 AD), AV Solidus AD 397-402, Constantinople Mint (9th Officina). 


Eastern Roman Empire, Arcadius (son of Theodosius I and older brother of Honorius, Emperor 383-408 AD), AR Reduced Siliqua, AD 397-402, Mediolanum [Milan] Mint, AD 397-402 [Sear].


Western Roman Empire, Honorius (son of Theodosius I and younger brother of Arcadius), AR reduced Siliqua, Mediolanum [Milan] Mint, AD 397-402 [Sear]. 


Western Roman Empire, Honorius (son of Theodosius I and younger brother of Arcadius, Emperor AD 393-423), AV Solidus, ca. AD 402-408, Ravenna Mint.


Edited by DonnaML
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I think I have a few.  I believe most if not all have been posted before, so like @DonnaML I will keep the descriptions brief.  By the way, nice coins, Donna.  

  I have posted these in four groups with four coins in each group.  The coins were not moved, just flipped over for the reverse photos.  So in each group of four, the upper right obverse is paired with the upper right reverse, etc.   They are not in perfect chronological order, nor are my photography skills very praiseworthy;  for both these things I apologize.  


1 Valens of Treveri

2 Valentinian II of Mediolanum

3 Arcadius of Mediolanum

4 Arcadius   Same



5 Theodosius the Great of Constantinople  Unusually for the CONCORDIA reverse on the solidi, Constantinopolis wears a mural crown.

6 Gratian of Treveri

7  Theodosius II   Constantinople 

8  Theodosius II   Same


9 Theodosius II  Constantinople 

10 Theodosius II  Constantinople

11  Theodosius II from Thessalonica

12. Valentinian III from Ravenna 


13  Theodosius II  Constantinople

14  Theodosius II from Thessalonica

15  Theodosius II  imitative (Germanic?)

16  Valentinian III  Visigothic (compare with #12)



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