Roman Collector Posted July 1, 2022 · Patron Share Posted July 1, 2022 (edited) Friday felicitations, fellow Faustina fanatics! Martin Beckmann’s Diva Faustina: Coinage and Cult in Rome and the Provinces has greatly clarified the dating and arrangement of the Diva Faustina coinage. Beckmann identified an almost complete sequence of die-linkages for the aurei, supported by additional shorter, but corroborative, die-linkages among the sestertii. In addition, he discovered several mules with reverse die-linkages to dated coins of Antoninus or Aurelius Caesar, which connected certain issues to other dated events. These studies enabled Beckman to produce a comprehensive and reliable sequence of relative dating. The coinage is divided into five main phases commencing with the deification and funeral of Faustina. The use of the DIVA FAVSTINA obverse inscription begins with the third phase of issues, from AD 145-147, issued in conjunction with the marriage of her daughter, Faustina II, to Marcus Aurelius. The AVGVSTA reverse types depicting Ceres holding a single torch belong to this third phase of issues. There are a disproportionate number of coins depicting Ceres that were issued for Faustina and this is not coincidental. Andreas Alföldi argues that the connection between the empress and Ceres goes beyond mere concern over the grain supply or her devotion to the goddess. It is more personal; Antoninus Pius was devoted to the sanctuary at Eleusis, which had a temple where Faustina was worshiped as the new Demeter (Ceres) and had her own hierophant. This article deals with only one coin type: the type bearing the AVGVSTA reverse legend and depicting Ceres standing left, holding corn ears in her right hand and a long torch in her left that were issued AD 145-147 as noted above. Coins with this reverse design and legend were issued in the denarius, sestertius, and middle-bronze denominations. The bust may be right- or left-facing (denarius) and either veiled or bare-headed (denarius and middle bronze). On the denarii, Ceres holds only a long torch; on the bronze denominations, there is also a variety with a short torch, which I shall not discuss today. A new listing of known coin types is necessary because Cohen is in error in his description of a sestertius with a veiled bust on which Ceres bears the long torch. This error is propagated by RIC. All coins illustrated belong to my collection unless otherwise noted.Let's see any Faustina coins you have depicting Ceres or anything you feel is relevant! Faustina I, AD 138-140. Roman AR denarius, 2.69 g, 18.2 mm, 7 h. Rome, AD 145-147. Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, bare-headed and draped bust, right. Rev: AVGVSTA, Ceres, veiled and draped, standing left, holding two corn-ears in right hand and torch in left hand. Refs: RIC 360a; BMC 408-414; Cohen/RSC 78; RCV 4582; Strack 474; CRE 76. With left-facing, veiled bust (RIC 360d; BMCRE 415; Cohen –; RSC 78a), Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG, Auction 100, lot 508, 29 May 2017. Faustina I, AD 138-140. Roman orichalcum sestertius, 25.59 g, 32.6 mm, 6 h. Rome, AD 145-147. Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, bare-headed and draped bust, right. Rev: AVGVSTA S C, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and long torch. Refs: RIC 1116(a); BMCRE 1509-11; Cohen 79; RCV 4614; Strack 1286. Faustina I, AD 138-140.Roman Æ as or dupondius; 12.09 g, 25.7 mm, 7 hRome, AD 145-147.Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.Rev: AVGV STA SC, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and long torch.Refs: RIC 1169(a); BMCRE 1566; Cohen 80; RCV 4645; Strack 1286. Faustina I, AD 138-140. Roman Æ as or dupondius; 10.51 g, 25.2 mm, 12 h. Rome, AD 145-147. Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, veiled and draped bust, right. Rev: AVGV STA SC, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and long torch. Refs: RIC 1169(b); BMCRE –; Cohen 81(?); RCV –; Strack 1286 (BuVaNa). As I note above, RIC 1116(b) uncritically cites Cohen 81, which describes a sestertius of this type with a veiled bust. The existence of this coin is doubtful. Cohen cites no source. Strack lists no examples. An exhaustive search of internet databases yields no sestertii of this type with a veiled bust. In contrast, the middle bronze of this type does exist with a veiled bust, as I have illustrated with the example from my own collection. The coin is extremely rare and Strack cites examples only in Budapest (Nationalmuseum), the Vatican, and Naples (Nationalmuseum). It is lacking from the collections of the British Museum, the BnF (Paris), Berlin and Vienna. Moreover, I am unable to find any other examples online at the major databases, such as acsearchinfo, Coinarchives, OCRE, WildWinds, and The Coin Project. I suspect that Cohen mistakenly described the middle bronze version of this coin (RIC 1169b) with the veiled bust type as a sestertius.~~~ Notes: 1. Beckmann, Martin. Diva Faustina: Coinage and Cult in Rome and the Provinces. American Numismatic Society, 2012. 2. Alföldi, Andreas. "Redeunt Saturnia Regna. VII : Frugifer-Triptolemos Im Ptolemaïsch -Römischen Herrscherkult." Chiron , vol. 9, 1979, pp. 552–606, specifically pp. 586-589. 3. Eleusis, in the outskirts of Athens, of Eleusian mysteries fame. These mysteries involved elaborate rituals devoted to the worship of Demeter (Ceres). 4. Mylonas, George E. Eleusis and the Eleusian Mysteries. Princeton University Press, 1961, pp 155, 179. 5. Cohen, Henry. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Tome III: de Marc Aurèle à Albin (161 à 197 après J.-C.). Paris, 1883, no. 81, p. 420. 6. Mattingly, Harold and Edward A. Sydenham. The Roman Imperial Coinage. III, Spink, 1930, no. 1116(b), p. 162. Edited July 5, 2022 by Roman Collector Update photo 11 1 Quote Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...
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