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Roman Republican Coin # 73: Diana Nemorensis


DonnaML
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Another example of a common coin that I believe is well above average in quality. I purchased it from its buyer at the 2021 CNG auction referenced below. 

Roman Republic/Imperatorial Period, P. Accoleius Lariscolus, AR Denarius, Sep-Dec. 43 BCE, Rome Mint. Obv. Draped bust of Diana Nemorensis right, head closely bound with fillet, and hair arranged in close locks above her forehead; behind, P • ACCOLEIVS upwards; before, LARISCOLVS downwards / Rev. Triple cult statue of Diana Nemorensis (Diana-Hecate-Selene) facing, supporting on their hands and shoulders a beam, above which are five cypress trees, the figure on left (Diana) holding bow, that on right (Selene?) holding poppy or lily, with Hecate probably in the center.  Crawford 486/1, RSC I Accoleia 1 (ill. p. 9), BMCRR I 4211, Sear CRI 172 at p. 109 [David Sear, The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49-27 BC (1998)], Sear RCV I 484 (ill. p. 161), RBW Collection 1701 (ill. p. 363). 19 mm., 3.32 g., 10 hr. Purchased May 2022; ex Classical Numismatic Group [CNG] Electronic Auction 491, 5 May 2021, Lot 349 (from the Lampasas Collection); ex CNG Electronic Auction 409, 8 Nov. 2017, Lot 535; ex CNG Sale 76/2, 12 Sep. 2007, Lot 3242 (from John A. Seeger Collection).*

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*See John Melville Jones, A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins (Seaby, London 1990) (entry for “Diana,” at p. 97) explaining that in Roman religion Diana was not only generally equated with the Greek goddess Artemis as the divine huntress, but “was also equated with Luna (the Greek Selene) and Hecate [the Greek goddess associated with night, magic, necromancy, the underworld, etc.]. A triple Diana, combining these three forms, appears once on Roman coins, on a denarius of P. Accoleius Lariscolus (43 BC) which shows her as she was worshipped at Aricia near Lake Nemi, the home of the mint magistrate’s family. This Diana Nemorensis is portrayed in the form of a triple statue on the reverse of the coin, the head of the goddess being the obverse type (an earlier interpretation of the type as a representation of the Nymphae Querquetulanae is less satisfactory).” (For that earlier interpretation, see RSC I at p. 9, stating that the referenced Nymphae “preside over the green forests and it was to them that the groves of the Lares on Mount Coelius were consecrated.”)

 Crawford follows the Diana Nemorensis interpretation, stating that “the types refer to the Aricine origin of the moneyer.” (Crawford Vol. I p. 497.) However, he rejects the theory of Andreas Alföldi that the type was also connected to the fact that Octavian’s mother Atia, who died during her son’s consulship in 43 BCE, was born in Aricia, stating that Lariscolus’s “appointment as moneyer will have taken place in 44 and hence have owed nothing to Octavian.” (Id.) However, in Sear CRI at p. 107, David Sear argues the contrary in the latter part of his discussion of this type: 

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If anyone has any other thoughts or information regarding which of the three goddesses on the reverse is which, I'd love to know. I identify the figure on the left as Diana holding a bow, and the figure on the right as Selene holding a poppy (or lily), following the description by Jochen1 at Coin Talk, in his thread at https://www.cointalk.com/threads/diana-nemorensis.344409/#post-4859090 . The standard authorities generally identify the object held by the figure on the left as a poppy rather than a bow, and the one held by the figure on the right as a lily rather than a poppy, without specifying which goddess is which. In fact, on my specimen, the flower on the right does seem to resemble a lily more than a poppy. I am not aware of any tradition identifying Luna/Selene with either. Although I believe that lilies do open at night.

Please post your coins depicting Diana (or Luna/Selene or Hecate), whether Roman Republican or otherwise.

Edited by DonnaML
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42 minutes ago, Spaniard said:

@DonnaML...Great looking coin.

To me the statue on the left looks to be holding a bow not a poppy?

I agree, and as you were making your comment I edited my description to make the same identification, based on a truly excellent post by Jochen1 at Coin Talk. He identified the figure on the left as Diana with a bow, and the figure on the right as Selene/Luna with a poppy, leaving Hecate as the figure in the middle.  However, the flower on the right actually looks more like a lily than a poppy to me on my example. I don't know from flowers, but isn't it the case that lilies open at night and might, therefore, be appropriate for Luna?

Edited by DonnaML
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Some more of my own coins depicting Artemis or Diana. Hopefully others will post theirs as well.

Antoninus Pius, Billon Tetradrachm, Year 5 (AD 141/142), Alexandria, Egypt Mint. Obv. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind, ΑVΤ Κ Τ ΑΙΛ ΑΔΡ ΑΝΤⲰΝΙΝΟϹ / Rev. Artemis advancing right, wearing diplois (cloak) and boots, with short chiton and short peplos which flies behind, right breast bare, raising right hand to pluck arrow from quiver and holding out bow in left hand; in left field, L beneath E (Year 5). 23 mm., 13.52 g., 12 h. Emmett 1362.5, RPC IV.4 Online 14247 (temporary) (see https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/4/14247); Milne 1693 at p. 41 (detailed description of Artemis at p. 134); BMC 16 Alexandria 938 (at p. 109 & Pl. III) (rev. var. in placement of year). Purchased at CNG [Classical Numismatic Group, LLC] E-Auction 512, 23 March 2022, Lot 454.

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Diadumenian Caesar, AE Tetrassarion (4 Assaria), 217-218 AD, Nicopolis ad Istrum [Nikyup, Bulgaria] Mint, Moesia Inferior, Statius Longinus, Consular Legate. Obv. Bareheaded bust of Diadumenian right, draped and armored, seen from behind, M OPEL DIADOV-MENIANOC K (OV ligate) [ = Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus, Caesar] / Rev. Artemis, wearing short chiton, walking right, holding bow in left hand and drawing arrow from quiver in right hand, hound jumping behind her left foot, VΠ CTA ΛONΓINOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC I / CTPΩ in exergue [ = Consular legate Longinus, (Governor) of the residents of Nikopolis on the (river) Istros]. AMNG I/I 1843 [Pick, Behrendt, Die antiken Münzen von Dacien und Moesien, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. I/I (Berlin, 1898) at p. 467]; Varbanov I 3743 [Varbanov, Ivan, Greek Imperial Coins And Their Values, Volume I: Dacia, Moesia Superior & Moesia Inferior (English Edition) (Bourgas, Bulgaria, 2005) at p. 308]; Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.25.13.3 [Hristova, H., H.-J. Hoeft, & G. Jekov. The Coins of Moesia Inferior 1st - 3rd c. AD: Nicopolis ad Istrum (Blagoevgrad, 2015)].*

Diadumenian-Artemis (Nikopolis ad Istrum) jpg version.jpg

**Obverse die match to the die classified as Obverse Die No. 9 in table entitled “Nicopolis ad Istrum - 4 assaria - die matches” (see http://www.diadumenian.com/Die%20tables%20nicopolis%204%20assaria.html). It is an obverse die match to the two coins depicted at  http://www.diadumenian.com/Nicopolis%20artemis%20longinus.html, the second of which was sold at Gorny & Mosch, Giessener Münzhandlung Auction 121, 2005 Lot number: 300. Coin is also an obverse die match to, inter alia, the coins depicted at https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=17248 and http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?zpg=28570 .


Roman Republic, C.. Allius Bala, AR Denarius, 92 BCE, Rome mint. Obv.: Diademed female head (Diana?)* right, wearing necklace; BALA behind, control mark "R" below chin / Rev.: Diana in biga of stags right, holding sceptre and reins in left hand and flaming torch in right, with quiver over shoulder; control-mark (grasshopper) below stags; C•ALLI in exergue; all within laurel wreath. Crawford 336/1b; RSC I Aelia [Allia] 4 (ill.), Sear RCV I 221 (ill.), Sydenham 595, BMCRR 1742-1771 [no control-letter "R"]. 17 mm., 3.88 g. 

Allius Bala orig. jpg version.jpg

* Varying identifications of obverse head: Crawford ("female head r., wearing diadem"); RSC I ("female head (Diana?)"); BMCRR (same); Sear RCV I ("female deity").

** Moneyer otherwise unknown. See BMCRR p. 238 n. 2: "This type may refer to the annual festival in honor of Diana held on the Aventine, where her temple stood, and at which torch races occurred. . . . C. Allius Bala was apparently the first moneyer to introduce a symbol as a mint-mark in conjunction with a letter."


Roman Republic, A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus (Aulus Postumius Albinus, son of Aulus [mint magistrate ca. 96 BCE], and grandson of Spurius [Consul 110 BCE]), AR Serrate Denarius, 81 BCE. Obv. Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder, figure of stag’s head at end of bow (horns to left), bucranium above [off flan] / Rev. Roman priest standing facing on rocky ground (on Aventine Hill), head left, with right arm extended holding aspergillum, sprinkling heifer [Harlan, RRM I*], bull [Crawford & Sear], or ox [RSC] which he is about to sacrifice, a lighted altar between them, A POST - AF - SN • ALBIN [AL in monogram] around. RSC I Postumia 7, Crawford 372/1, Sydenham 745, Sear RCV I 296 (ill.), Harlan, RRM I Ch. 1 at pp. 1-7, BMCRR 2836. 18.54 mm., 3.85 g. Ex. Spink & Sons Ltd. (before 2000 because of address on Spink coin tag; probably before 1974 given citation to Sydenham but not Crawford.

Postumius (Diana-Sacrifice of Heifer) COMBINED 2.jpg

* See Michael Harlan, Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins, 81 BCE-64 BCE (2012) (“RRM I”) (using this coin-type as the cover illustration for his book). At pp. 3-4, Harlan argues that in the legend which, as Crawford acknowledges, is the basis for the reverse of this coin -- namely, the sacrifice to Diana on the Aventine Hill founding her temple there ca. 500 BCE, establishing Rome as the caput rerum for all of Italy [and symbolizing the victory of Sulla over the rebel Italians in 82 BCE] -- the sacrificed animal was a heifer with wondrous horns, not a bull or an ox.  (Citing Livy, The History of Rome, Book 1, ch. 45 [available at  .


Roman Republic, Ti. Claudius Ti.f. Ap.n. Nero [Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of Tiberius and grandson of Appius], AR Serrate Denarius, 78 BCE, Rome Mint. Obv. Draped bust of Diana right with hair in topknot, bow and quiver over shoulder, figure of stag’s head at end of bow (horns to left), S • C [Senatus Consulto] before / Rev. Winged Victory driving galloping biga right, with horses’ heads straining forward, holding wreath in right hand and palm frond and reins in left hand, control number CXXXIIII beneath horses; in exergue, TI•CLAVD•TI•F [VD ligate] / [A]P•N [AP ligate] in two lines. Crawford 383/1, RSC Claudia 5, Sear RCV I 310 (ill.), Sydenham 770, BMCRR 3096-3113 [Control number CXXXIIII not included], Harlan, RRM I Ch. 8, pp. 36-39 [Harlan, Michael, Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins, 81 BCE-64 BCE (2012)]. 18 mm., 4.01 g., 6 h.*

Ti. Claudius Nero 79 BCE Diana-Victory in biga jpg version.jpg

*The moneyer belonged to the patrician Nerones branch of the Claudii, and was the paternal grandfather of the Emperor Tiberius. Harlan, supra at p. 36. See also https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiberius_Claudius_Nero_(grandfather_of_Tiberius_Caesar).  Later on, according to Harlan, he served under Pompey in the pirate wars of 67 BCE, with his area of command the Spanish waters as far as the Pillar of Hercules. This coin was part of a large issue in two series, with control numbers in the first series running from I to CLXV, and in the second series using the letter A coupled with numbers 1 to CLXXXII. It is believed that this issue (like the large issue of Naevius Balbus in the previous year (Crawford 382/1, also showing Victory at the reins of a chariot, albeit a triga) represents money minted for the use of Quintus Caecilius Metullus Pius (the issuer of Crawford 374/1 in 81 BCE, with an elephant reverse) in Sulla’s Spanish war against Sertorius in 79 BCE. Id. Sear agrees; see Sear RCV I at p. 130.  

In 1904, Grueber posited in BMCRR that Diana’s appearance on the obverse of this coin was a reference to the Sabine origin of the gens Claudia, given Diana’s own Sabine origin. Crawford rejected this view, but Harlan agrees with Grueber; see RRM 1 at p. 37. He also notes that the inspiration for Diana’s portrayal on this coin must have been her depiction on the obverse of the coin of Aulus Postumius in 81 BCE (Crawford 372/1, with a reverse showing a heifer about to be sacrificed by a priest to Diana on the Aventine Hill): “the goddess is depicted in the very same style on both coins: her hair is tied in a knot on top of her head and the unmistakable attributes of bow and quiver are over her shoulder making the identity of the goddess certain. Claudius’ coin continues the theme of caput orbis terrarum [Rome as head of the world] so clearly expressed by Postumius. Diana, whose appearance on Roman coinage during the 70s was far more common than any other decade of Republican coinage, was emblematic of the extension of Roman imperium.” Id. 

Roman Republic, C. Postumius, AR Denarius, Rome 74 BCE. Obv. Bust of Diana R. w/ bow and quiver, figure of stag’s head at end of bow (horns to left) / Rev. Hound running R., hunting spear below, “C POSTUMI TA” [TA in monogram] in exergue. RSC I Postumia 9, Crawford 394/1a, Sear RCV I 330, Harlan, RRM I Ch. 18 at pp. 109-112, BMCRR Rome 3238. 18 mm., 3.83 g.

Postumius (Diana and hound).jpg

Roman Republic, C. Hosidius C.f. Geta, AR Denarius, 68 BCE. Obv. Draped bust of Diana R., wearing crown and stephane[?], with bow and quiver over shoulder, GETA before, III VIR behind/ Rev. Wild boar of Calydon r., pierced in shoulder by spear and attacked by hound beneath, C. HOSIDI C F in exergue. RSC I Hosidia 1 (ill.), Crawford 407/2, Sear RCV I 346 (ill.), Harlan, RRM I Ch. 32 at pp. 189-194, BMCRR Rome 3388. 18 mm., 3.91 g.

New Hosidius Geta Diane-Boar COMBINED.jpg

Gordian III AR Denarius, 241-242 AD, Rome mint. Obv. Laureate, draped, & cuirassed bust right, IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Rev. Diana standing facing, head right, holding flaming long torch right with both hands, DIANA LVCIFERA. RIC IV-3 127, RSC IV 69, Sear RCV III 8673 (ill.). 20 mm., 2.7 g., 6 h. (Issued in celebration of marriage of Gordian & Tranquillina, 241 AD. See Sear RCV III 8673 at p. 123.)

Gordian III-Diana Lucifera denarius jpg.jpg

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I have 2 Republican coins with Diana, both posted in this thread by other colleagues.

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C. Hosidius C. f. Geta 68 BC. Rome. Denarius AR17 mm, 3,96 g
Obv: Diademed head of Diana draped right, bow and quiver at her shoulder GETA before, III. VIR behind. Rev.: The wild boar of Calydon right, pierced by spear and attacked by dog. C. HOSIDI. C.F. in exergue.
Crawford 407/2

.... and the P. Clodius coin, with the usual bad strike

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P. Clodius M.f. Turrinus 42 BC. Rome
Denarius AR
19 mm, 3,81 g
Obv. Laureate head of Apollo right; behind, lyre.
Rev. P.CLODIVS – •M•F, Diana standing facing, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lit torch in each hand.
Crawford 494/23; BMCRR Rome 4290.

Some Artemis coins

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Bronze AE
Lydia, Saitta, Faustina II, AD 147-175
16 mm, 3 g
Obv : ΦΑVϹΤƐΙΝΑ ϹƐΒΑϹΤΗ, draped bust of Faustina II, r. / ƐΠ Φ ΗΡΚΛΑΝΟV ϹΑΙΤΤΗΝΩΝ, Artemis standing, r., drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, holding bow; to r., dog
RPC IV.2, 11561

image.png.f6db0fbd5d5a6647787f09adc2a4d878.png

CILICIA. Soloi (ca 1st century BC) AE19
Obv: Head of Artemis right, wearing stephane.
Rev: ΣΟΛΕΩΝ - Double cornucopia; to left, Є above Θ.
Ziegler -; SNG BN 1209-10 var. (controls); SNG Levante 865 var. (same)
5,68 g, 19 mm

 

My cistophoric tetradrachm, showing the cult statue of Artemis

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Lydia. Tralleis circa 133 BC.
Cistophoric Tetradrachm AR
26 mm, 11,75 g
Magistrate Time. Cista mystica with serpent, within ivy wreath. / TΡAΛ to left of bowcase between two coiled serpents, TIME above, cult image of Artemis Anaitis standing front in right field. BMC 31-32; SNG von Aulock 8287; SNG Cop 661; Paris 2700-2701; SNG Leipzig 1269; Mionnet IV, 1026; Pinder 160; Whittall sale 1325b; GRPC Lydia S470

 

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Great thread, Donna ... Hi

Ummm, Diana, eh? ... well, I do have/had these sweet ol' Diana-obverse ex-amples 

 

c hosid a.jpg

c hosid b.jpg

A Postumius Af Sp n Albinus.jpg

Larry dog a.jpg

Larry dog b.jpg


 

Oh, and then I also have/had Diana driving a stag-biga (with a few cool dogs thrown-in for extra animal credit!)

 

Lucius Axius L.f. Naso AR Denarius (below)

Rome mint

70 BC

Diameter: 18 mm

Weight: 4.04 grams

Obverse: Helmeted head of Mars right, wearing crested helmet with plumes; XV¯ to left

Reverse: Diana driving biga of stags right; behind, two dogs running right; below, dog running right

Reference: Crawford 400/1b; Sydenham 795; Axia 2

Other: 4h … toned, banker’s mark on cheek. Rare

Ex-stevex6

 

Lucius Axius.jpg

Edited by Steve
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On 6/5/2022 at 5:52 PM, DonnaML said:

I agree, and as you were making your comment I edited my description to make the same identification, based on a truly excellent post by Jochen1 at Coin Talk. He identified the figure on the left as Diana with a bow, and the figure on the right as Selene/Luna with a poppy, leaving Hecate as the figure in the middle.  However, the flower on the right actually looks more like a lily than a poppy to me on my example. I don't know from flowers, but isn't it the case that lilies open at night and might, therefore, be appropriate for Luna?

This looks correct on mine also

image.png.769dd273b03d5dfe3b4e8f5877e68aa8.png

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[IMG]
Roman Republic
C. Allius BALA,
92 BCE denarius
19-18 mm. 3.83 g
Female head right (Diana?), I before neck
Biga of stags (thus Diana), anchor below. A ALLI
Sear 221. Crawford 336/1c. Aelia 4
Ex: Warren Esty
Year before the Social War with the Marsic Confederation

 

upload_2020-11-9_14-25-41.png
Campania CAPUA AE Uncia 216-211 BCE Diana Boar Hannibal capital Italia SCARCE

Edited by Alegandron
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