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The Roman hoard (or treasure) of the Teatro Regio at the archaeological museum at Pilotta (Parma, ITALY)

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it was 1821 and what would later become the Teatro Regio di Parma in Italy was being built.

During the excavation, a very rich treasure emerged from a vase, which fortunately did not end up melted due to the archaeological passion that had long permeated the city.

The treasure of the Regio was composed of 33 aurei, whose dating starts from the emperor Nero and reaches up to Gallienus, who reigned until 268 AD.

But the most impressive part is represented by 16 gold jewels of various shapes and sizes, but all of extremely fine workmanship: rings, necklaces, chains, glyptic elements with semi-precious stones, refined decorations.

Scholars think that it could have been a reward for a high imperial official, or for a high-ranking soldier, who was then buried in the vase to help the treasure escape the invasions of the period, hypothetically by the Alamanni and Iutungi.

It is precisely Gallienus' aureus, mounted like a medallion, that allows the treasure to be dated to that turbulent phase of the third century.

Eventually, the gold arrived in the collections which then formed the now completely renovated archaeological museum of Pilotta

Parma Pendente con aureo di Gallieno dal tesoro del Teatro Regio, MANPr.jpg

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The origins of the city of Parma are very ancient: traces of the presence of man, attributable to the Lower Paleolithic, have been found on the Traversetolo hills and in the mountain basin of the Taro river. The numerous terremares found in the province - from terra mara or terra marna, mounds of blackish soil, made up of settlements enclosed by an embankment and a ditch connected to a watercourse - are instead evidence of the Bronze Age. Founded in 183 BC. by the Romans, Parma immediately became an important reference center for the entire surrounding plain: the construction of the Via Emilia (187 BC) favored a profound and rapid development of agriculture and sheep breeding throughout the surrounding area.

In 569 the city was conquered by the Lombards and became the seat of the Duchy. A new communications system began to overlap with the Roman structure. The Parma segment of the Via Francigena was born. Castles and hospices arose more and more frequently to ensure hospitality and assistance to pilgrims and travellers. Starting from the 9th century, predominantly Benedictine monastic nuclei promoted an action to reclaim the territory, which allowed the recolonization and recovery of the land for agriculture.
Progressively the bishops assumed temporal power and Parma gave two antipopes - Honorius II and Clement III - to the conflict between religious and political power over investitures. The establishment of the Municipality, around 1140, marked the beginning of the city's rebirth after the period of early medieval disintegration.

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