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The Roman Province of Achaea.


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Achaea was a province of the Roman empire consisting of the Peloponnese, Attica, Boeotia, Euboea, the Cyclades and parts of Phthiotis, Aetolia and Phocis




It is sometimes confused with the region of Achaea in northern Peloponnesos.





Here are a few favorites that I have re-photographed and added a background location map.


Peloponnesus. Pylos, Messenia. Caracalla. AD 198-217. Æ Assarion 22mm.
Obv: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PYL[IWN] Terminal figure veiled and closely draped, holds in r. end of garment.





Achaea. Elis, Elis. Septimius Severus AE18.
Obv. - ΛCEPCEBHP.. Septimius Severus laureate, head rt.
Rev. - HΛEIWΝ Zeus standing rt. holding eagle in left hand and throwing lightning bolt with rt.





Zacynthus; Achaea; Peloponnessus (District: Zacynthus). Date 161–180.

Obverse design laureate head of Marcus Aurelius, r. Obverse inscription ΑΥ ΚΑΙ Μ ΑΥ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝ ΑΥ
Reverse design Pan standing, r., nebris over shoulders, holding bunch of grapes and infant Dionysus
Reverse inscription ΖΑΚΥΝΘΙΩΝ
RPC IV.1, 4626





Achaea. Cyclades, Melos. Demos / Palladium AE24

Obv: DHMOC / Bearded bust of Demos r.
Rev: ΜΗΛΙΩΝ / Statue of Pallas Athena(Palladium) standing facing head r., holding spear aloft in right hand, preparing to strike, circular shield on left arm.
24mm., 12.2g.
Time of Nerva.
RPC Volume: III №: 404A



Please feel free to share any Achaean provincials in your collection.

Edited by AncientOne
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The one from Pylos does not load. Here is one from the series of coins minted mostly 202-5 in mainland Greece by a bunch of towns of the Peloponessos:


Caracalla as Augustus AE22mm 4.56g copper assarion from Phigalia in Arcadia, BCD Peloponnesos 1656.1

Edited by seth77
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Great topic and set of Provincials!

Thanks for the maps, that is very useful for understanding/visualizing the province. (Where it still gets challenging -- and where I wonder if the historical record is incomplete in important ways -- is how the borders of Roman Achaea changed over the centuries.)

The Roman types from many of the Peloponnesian cities can be really hard to find, but have such interesting history behind them. I'd love to have any of the ones you've posted.

I'll share a couple of my bronzes: a favorite Claudius (surprisingly haven't posted on NF yet); and two Nero from Thessaly. (Thessaly was, I believe, part of the province of Achaea in this period.)


Colonia Augusta Achaica Patrensis.

Struck in Achaea, Patras, it straddles the distinction between Provincial and Imperial, with Latin legends referencing the city as a veterans colony for two storied Roman legions, the Legio X Fretensis and Legio XII Fulminata.* Sometimes this type is described using the Imperial denomination "AE As," though more commonly with its Provincial equivalent, the "AE Assarion".**


Roman Provincial. Achaea, Patras [Patraea]. Claudius AE As or Assarion (11.56g, 25mm, 1h). Legionary Issue.
Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM. Head of Claudius left.
Rev: COL A A PATR X XII. Aquila between two standards.
Ref: BCD Peloponnesos II 2782 (this coin); RPC 1256, GERM (note: the BCD specimens are scrambled, but this one is there with the wrong photo/description online). See also: Sear GIC 432 (GERMANICVS); Lindgren II 1640.
Prov: Ex Peter J. Merani Collection, Part II, CNG EA 490 (21 April 2021), 70; BCD Collection of Peloponnesos, Part II, CNG 81 (20 May 2009), Lot 2782; purchased from F. Kovacs, December 1996 (“ex-Private Collection” of Kovacs), who bought if c. 1970s from Alan S Walker/Bank Leu, from "Old Stock" (which phrase often references the J. Hirsch Estate, sold by Bank Leu from the 1950-1970s).


*: There is some debate over whether a different Legio X and/or Legio XII might be referenced.
**: I haven't found the type published in any Roman Imperial references, which I'm a little surprised by. If anyone knows one, please let me know.




Circa 66-68 CE: One really fascinating episode in Roman provincial history is Nero's great tour of Greece -- especially of its Games and festivals -- culminating in his "Liberation of Achaea" (sometimes "Nero's Liberation of Greece," as Gallivan has it in his classic 1973 article in Hermes). "Liberating" mainly meant financially.

The coins below probably not only commemorate Nero's travels through Greece (and participation/victories in their Games), but also celebrate his removal of the Provincial taxes due to Rome. (I don't recall if this might've also meant military contributions, etc.)

It's not surprising then, that these coin types would be especially flattering of Nero. That taxation was a serious burden for the Greeks. But a major source of revenue for the Empire. One can imagine the reception in Rome (among the elites) was less warm!

This decision must have contributed to the Senate's decision to declare him a "public enemy." (Much more so, I'm sure, than his foolish performances with the lyre.) The "Achaean liberation decree" was promptly overturned in 69 once Vespasian was in charge.


Suetonius' Nero-as-Apollo.

As everyone knows, Nero was a gifted singer and athlete.... Err... More accurately: Nero was famously gifted many victories by the organizers of various Games.

Prize crowns and wreaths weren't the only awards: Nero was also honored by many coins representing his championship performances.

(I believe these Provincial ones were authentic shows of gratitude by the Greeks and that Nero was probably very popular and well-received in the provinces.)

This type is special: Though Provincial, it is of the same types as his Imperial AEs described by Suetonius, who wrote that Nero “placed sacred crowns in his private quarters around his couches, as well as upon statues representing him in the guise of a lyre-player; he even had a coin struck with the same imagery."


Roman Provincial. Thessaly, Koinon of Thessaly. Nero (Augustus, 54-68 CE) Æ Diassarion (22mm, 9.52 g, 6h). Struck under Aristion, strategos, ca. 66-8 CE.
: ΝЄΡΩΝ ΘЄCCΑΛΩΝ. Laureate head right.

Rev: APIΣTIΩN/OΣ ΣTPATH/ΓOY. Apollo Kitharoidos standing right, holding kithara in his left hand, playing it with his right.
Ref: Rogers Type 79; BCD Thessaly II 931.1 var. (arrangement of legend); Burrer Em. 1, Series 1, 1.1 (A1/R1 – this coin, illustrated on pl. 9); RPC 1439 (this coin = ex. 25; cited in RPC Suppl. 1, as Burrer 1.1).
Prov: Ex-BCD Collection; CNG EA 325, “Coinage of the Thessalian League from the BCD Collection,” (23 April 2014), Lot 29; Peter J. Merani Collection (NVMMIS HISTORIAM DISCENS, Part II); CNG e-Auction 490 (21 April 2021), Lot 65.



Another interesting detail: The lyre-player (Nero-as-Apollo) wears a radiate crown (Suetonius' "sacred crown"?), just as Nero preferred to be portrayed. Interestingly, the second coin below, struck contemporaneously, shows Nero radiate on the obverse. The Thessalians wanted there to be no mistake; they meant to flatter Nero as a great lyrist whose performances were so magnificent as to be commemorated on coinage.


A visit from the Emperor was a really big deal in the Provinces. So, Nero's Greek tour would've been an amazing honor even if he hadn't given Achaea a gift so outrageous it was certain to be overturned ASAP and would surely result in his death.

There would be celebrations and permanent memorials constructed anywhere he went. All the little cities would strike coins to commemorate and advertise that they had been honored by Imperial presence. Generations later, it would still be important. It could change the course of history for these provincial towns. Just a visit!


Thessaly: Taurokathapsia.

I'm not sure if there's any record of Nero specifically visiting Thessaly but it seems likely (especially given all coins issued for him). If he did, it's likely they'd have rushed to put together the most spectacular Games possible. For Thessaly, this could only mean one thing: The Taurokathapsia.

Thessaly's most distinctive & famous event, it drew on Greek traditions as old as the Minoans. Think of the Roman Desultors (acrobatic equestrian horse-racing) simultaneously engaged in naked bull-fighting. Put more briefly, horseback-leaping-bull-wrestling.

It sounds truly awe-inspiring. (But I do have some doubts about whether Nero could've done this one!)

Having first appeared on coins 500 years earlier, Nero's coin was, to my knowledge, the latest-ever to illustrate the Taurokathapsia:


Thessaly, Thessalian League (Koinon). Nero AE Assarion (20mm, 6.88 g, 12h), Aristion as Strategos, c. 66-8 CE.
Obv: ΝΕΡΩΝ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ. Head of Nero radiate.
Rev: ΣΤΡΑΤΗΓΟΥ ΑΡΙΣΤΙΩΝΟΣ. Taurokathapsia scene: Hero Thessalos jumping from his horse, in background galloping r., onto a bull running r., the head of which he restrains with a band held in both his hands.
Ref: RPC I 1440 (this coin = ex. 7); BCD Thessaly I 1436.4; BCD Thessaly II 931.2; Burrer 35.
Prov: Ex-BCD Collection, CNG e-Auction 325 ("Coinage of the Thessalian League from the BCD Collection," 23 April 2014), Lot 45 (Corr., incorrect dies ref. for Burrer).

Edited by Curtis JJ
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Should load now. Thank you Seth. I like your coin from Phigalia which was also called Phialia. Here's one with a Dionysus reverse.


Achaea. Arcadia, Phialia (Phigaleia). Septimius Severus Æ22

Obv: laureate head right.
Rev: ΦIAΛEΩN, Dionysos wearing short chiton, standing left, holding kantharos and thyrsos.
BCD 1644-1645; Pausanias 3.

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Thank you for the informative post @Curtis JJ! The Taurokathapsia scene is amazing! If you are interested in ancient city locations here is a link to The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography.  https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/17124/pg17124-images.html. The Butler atlas is one of the most comprehensive for ancient cities from this period. 


Here is a Nero and a few from the Thessalian League.


Corinthia, Corinth. Nero. 54-68 AD. Æ 20mm . Ti. Claudius Anaxilaus and P. Ventidius Fronto, Duovirs. Struck 67-68 AD. Laureate head of Nero left / Nero stands facing within tetrastyle temple. BCD Corinth 480. SNG Copenhagen 235-236. RPC I 1208.



THESSALY, Koinon of Thessaly. Hadrian. AD 117-138. Æ Diassarion (20mm, 5.80 g, 6h). Nikomachos, strategos. AΔPIANON KAICAPA ΘЄCCAΛOI, laureate bust right, wearing drapery on far shoulder / (CTPA monogram) O (YX) NIKO-MAXOY, Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand, shield on her left arm.



Thessaly, Koinon of. Septimius Severus AE21.

Obv: AVT L CEP CEBHPOCP, laureate head right.
Rev: KOINON QECCALWN, Athena Itonia standing right brandishing javelin & shield.

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Great Thessalian Koinon coins & Nero from Corinth!

A really cool thing about those Athena Itonia ones is the design had been used on Thessalian coins for centuries (I think starting in the 2nd BCE, but there had been Athena in other poses on Thessalian Obols etc. since much earlier).

Here's my Hadrian -- different dies from yours but the same reverse monograms & legend. I really love these types. Cool to compare to the Septimius and see how little change there was century to century:



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After mid 2nd century Thessaly becomes part of Macedonia, so the following coin is not de jure Achaean despite being still minted at Larissa (probably).


Caracalla as Caesar (196-198)
AE26mm 8.82g orichalcum (brass) triassaria, minted at Larissa, ca. 197.
MAP AYR ANTΩ[NINOC]; youthful bust, laureate, draped cuirassed seen from back
[KOINON] ΘΕCCΑΛΩN; Nike, holding wreath in right hand and reins in left, driving galloping triga right; below, Γ.
BCD Thessaly 974.3

Notes: This is an interesting series of Thessalian coinage, marking the denomination both in the regular manner with Γ and by the carriage driven by Nike being a triga, instead of the more common biga for the diassaria and quadriga for the tetrassaria. This is also a very rare coin, from an early phase of minting for Caracalla, while still Caesar, showing him as a child-youth, possibly struck shortly before his elevation to Augustus in early 198.

Similar specimens here and here (both obverse die-matches).

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Here's one issued for Nero I posted a while back


Nero Æ 19 Magistrate Gaius Iulius Polyaenus (duovir) Sicyon, Achaea (c. 67 A.D.) See notes. ΝΕ ΚΑΙ ΖΕΥϹ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟϹ laureate head right /  ΕΠΙ Γ ΙΟΥ ΠΟΛΥΑΙΝΟΥ, ΔΑ-ϹΙ across fields, naked figure wearing cloak standing right. (7.68 grams / 19 x 18 mm) eBay May 2023 $25.00 B.O.

Note:  RPC I 1242; no other references.  Found only 3 of these, all on RPC.

Die-Match Obv. & Rev.: Coin no. 1 of RPC I 1242 Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Inventory No. 665

Coin no. 2 of RPC I 1242 British Museum Inventory No. 1895,0703.9

Die-Match Obv.: Coins 1-4 of RPC I 1240 (horseman rev.)

Note:  Reverse legend starts at right, under figure's hand (ΕΠΙ), and runs clockwise to head (NOY).   Note:  "The grant of freedom to Greece at Corinth in 67 is for the most part referred to by naming Zeus Eleutherios in a legend or depicting him....In addition, on all Neronian types of Sicyon the emperor was associated with Zeus Eleutherios by means of the legend NE(ron) K(aisar) ZEUS ELEUTHERIOS." E. Manders & D. Slootjes

Here is Hadrian "restoring" Achaea on a sestertius:

Hadrian Achaea Rest Nov 2018 (0).jpg

Hadrian Æ Sestertius
(134-138 A.D.)
Rome Mint

[HADR]IANVS AVG COS III PP laureate, draped bust right / [RESTITVTO]RI ACH[AIAE], Hadrian, togate, standing left, raising up kneeling Achaea; vase
with palm between figures.
RIC 938; Cohen 1216.
(26.17 grams / 31 mm)
eBay Nov. 2018

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That's a nice Sicyon @Marsyas Mike!  I have one that is barely legible but it is a hard type to acquire.



Achaea. Sicyonia, Sicyon. Septimius Severus AE24

2 Assaria (AE, 5.3 g, 24 mm), c. 198-205.
Obv: Laureate head of Septimius Severus to right.
Rev: Dionysos standing left with kantharos and thyrsus.
Uncertain C/M



A few Achaean from Athens.


Achaea. Attica, Athens. AE18. Athena/Sphinx

Obv: Helmeted head of Athena Parthenos, r.
Rev: ΑΘΕ, sphinx wearing modius, r.; all in wreath.
Reign of Augustus, c. mid-late 20s BC.
RPC 1311.



Achaea. Attica, Athens. AE22

Obv: Bust of Athena r. wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis.
Rev: AΘH NA IΩN Bucranium bound by wreath.
Time of Hadrian and the Antonines.
BMC 810.



Achaea. Attica, Athens. AE22

Obv: Draped bust of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet.
Rev: AΘHNAIΩN, Athena standing facing, head left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left.
Kroll 318



Achaea. Attica, Athens. AE22. Triptolemos

Obv: Bust of Athena l. wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis.
Rev: AΘH NA IΩN / Triptolemos standing in biga drawn by winged serpents, l.
Time of Hadrian and the Antonines.
22mm., 6.1g.

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As @seth77 noted above, Thessaly was removed from Achaia and became part of the Macedonian province in the mid 2nd cent. CE.

Interestingly, Thessaly had also previously been part of the Province of Macedonia, between 146 and 27 BCE!
That's when this coin was struck:


Thessalian League AE27, struck in Larissa c. 146-27 BCE. Mnesimachos and Polyxenos, magistrates.
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev: ΘEΣΣA-ΛΩN // above spear: MN-HCI // exergue: ΠOΛYΞE. Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand, shield on her left arm.
Ref: BCD Thessaly II 900.9 (different dies, same magistrate/inscriptions), "Scarce....Not found in the consulted references"; cf. G&N Pecunem 16 (4 May 2004), 200 for a unique specimen w/ full names inscribed.
Prov: Ex VAuctions 292 (6 Dec 2012), Lot 283 (part of 10 Grk AE).


So, that coin is Thessalian (and Roman Provincial in the loose sense), but not from the Province of Achaea (strictly speaking).

I find it interesting how long the same Athena Itonia reverse type was used in Thessaly. (As I mentioned above w/ reference to my Hadrian above and also the Septimius Severus specimen shared by @AncientOne.)
Again, for comparison:



In total, that reverse design was used for 300 - 400 years, from the Republican-era Thessalian League (2nd BCE) through Gallienus (260s CE). (I don't have a Gallienus yet, but see: BCD Thessaly 1425 and BCD Thessaly II 991 and 992.)


In 27 BCE Augustus established the Province of Achaea (split off from the Province of Macedonia). Thessaly was its northernmost holding on the Achaean border with Macedonia.

There are bronze coins with Augustus' portrait and Athena Itonia on the reverse, but I don't have any yet.
I do have an Augustan era Thessalian bronze with Athena & Artemis-Ennodia:


Thessaly, Koinon (League) Æ Assarion (15mm, 3.77 g, 6h). Megalokes, magistrate, temp. Augustus.
Obv: ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩ. Helmeted head of Athena r.
Rev: ΜΕΓΑΛΟΚΛ ΚΑΛΙΤ. Artemis Ennodia with torches r.
Ref/Prov: This coin = RPC I (Online) 1429B.3 = CNG EA 325, 20 (ex BCD Coll.).
Ref: BCD Thessaly I 1400; Burrer Emission 2, Series 5 (obv. legend var., unlisted dies).


Thessaly remained in Achaia from 27 BCE for another 175-190 years until Antoninus Pius reincorporated it into Macedonia. (Thessaly finally became a distinct province in 300 [BCD Thess. II: page 11], though too late to strike coins.) 

Since the timeline gets confusing, here are some key dates -- with specific ref. to Thessaly (please correct me if mistaken):

196 BCE: At the end of the Second Macedonian War, Philip V reaches a treaty with Rome, allowing it to become the hegemon in Greece and Macedonia.
148-146 BCE: At the end of the Achaean and Fourth Macedonian Wars, Rome establishes the Province of Macedonia (which includes Thessaly & rest of Achaea).
27 BCE: Augustus establishes Province of Achaea, removing it (incl. Thessaly) from the Prov. of Macedonia.
138-161 CE (?): Thessaly returned to the Province of Macedonia during the reign of Antoninus Pius.
300 CE: Thessalia becomes a separate province (first under the new Diocese of the Moesias, then under the even-newer Diocese of the Macedonia).

Edited by Curtis JJ
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I haven't considered my early roman coins from Thessaly to be Achaean. I need to.  Here are a few I can add.



Thessaly, Koinon of Thessaly under Augustus. Pseudo-autonomous AE15. Strategos: Megalokles

Strategos: Megalokles.
Obv. Head of Zeus, THESSALO
Rev. Head of Apollo, MEGALOKLEKLEI
RPC I, 1429A



Thessaly, Koinon of Thessaly. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AE20. 

AE20, 9.0gm. Sosandrou Sosandros , magistrate.
Bare head right / Athena standing left, holding Nike and resting hand on shield; spear resting against her arm; monogram in left field. RPC 1425 var.




Thessaly, Koinon of Thessaly. Pseudo-Autonomous AE22. Eirene/Nike

Obv: EIPHNH ΣEBAΣTH ΘEΣΣAΛΩN, draped bust of Eirene right, wearing wreath of grain ears and olive branch.
Rev: ΛAOVXO-V C-TPA-THΓOV, Nike standing left on globe, holding wreath in extended left hand, cradling palm frond in right arm.
Laouchos, strategos.
Burrer Em. 2 (of Nero), Series 6, Grp. 1, 100 (A37/R69); RPC 1451.
Time of Nero. AD 54-68. Æ Diassarion


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A lot of wonderful coins in this thread!

Here are my two coins from Thessaly, from when it was part of the province of Macedonia under the Roman Republic -- what I like to call "Republican Provincial" coins, even though they're from before the coverage period of the Roman Provincial Coinage volumes.

Both coins are ex BCD Collection. Footnotes omitted.

Thessalian League (under Roman Republic from 146 BCE, Province of Macedonia). Late 2nd-mid 1st centuries BCE, AR Stater ( = Double Victoriatus* = 1.5 denarius), Magistrates Sosipatros and Gorgopas. Obv. Laureate head of Zeus right / Rev. Helmeted Athena Itonia advancing right, holding shield with left hand and preparing to hurl spear with right hand; vertical legend ΘΕΣΣΑ-ΛΩN to left and right of Athena; [ΣΩ]ΣIΠ-ATPOΣ above spear; ΓOPΓΩΠΑΣ in exergue. BCD** Thessaly II 861.2 [CNG, The BCD Collection of the Coinage of Thessaly, Triton XV Auction, Jan. 3, 2012, Lot 861.2 (this coin)]; HGC 4, 209 [Hoover, Oliver, Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Greece: . . . Thessaly . . . ., Sixth to First Centuries BC, The Handbook of Greek Coinage Thessaly Series,Vol. 4 (2014)]; SNG Soutzos 397 [Tsourti, E. and Trifiro, M.D., Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece 5: Numismatic Museum, Athens, The A. G. Soutzos Collection (Athens, 2007)]; Klose pp. 339 & 346, 2 (same dies) [Klose, D.O.A, "Zur Chronologie der thessalischen Koinonprägungen im 2. und 1. Jh. v. Chr., Ein weiterer Schatzfund aus Südthessalien," in Peter, Ulrike. ed., Stephanos nomismatikos: Edith Schönert-Geiss zum 65. Geburtstag (Berlin, 1998), at pp. 333-350]. 22 mm., 6.08 g., 2 h.  Purchased from Sphinx Numismatics, Markham ON Canada, 28 July 2020; ex BCD [Basil C. Demetriadi] Collection. [According to Basil C. Demetriadi as written on coin tag: from Franke Hoard, Greece, found Summer 1983.]


Thessaly, Thessalian League (under Roman Republic from 146 BCE, Province of Macedonia). Mid-late 1st century BCE, AR Stater ( = Double Victoriatus* = 1.5 denarius), Magistrates Italos and Diokles. Obv. Head of Zeus right, wearing oak wreath, [ITAΛOY] [behind headoff flan] / Rev. Helmeted Athena Itonia advancing right, holding shield with left hand and preparing to hurl spear with right hand; vertical legend ΘΕΣΣΑ-ΛΩN to left and right of Athena; ΔIO-KΛHΣ above spear, N-I across field. BCD** Thessaly II 874.4 [CNG, The BCD Collection of the Coinage of Thessaly, Triton XV Auction, Jan. 3, 2012, Lot 874.4 (this coin)]; HGC 4, 210 [Hoover, Oliver, Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Greece: . . . Thessaly . . . ., Sixth to First Centuries BC, The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series,Vol. 4 (2014)]; McClean II 4797-4798 [Grose, S., Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fitzwilliam Museum, Vol. II, The Greek Mainland, the Aegean islands, Crete (Cambridge, 1926)]. 20 mm., 6.09 g., 12 h. Purchased from Sphinx Numismatics, Markham ON Canada, 28 July 2020; ex BCD [Basil C. Demetriadi] Collection. [According to Basil C. Demetriadi as written on coin tag: from Hoard found Dec. 1996, West of Karditsa, Thessaly, Greece.


And I certainly agree with @Curtis JJ that the portrayal of Athena Itonia remained remarkably consistent over several centuries.

Edited by DonnaML
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