Jump to content

Identification Guide to Islamic Golden Horde Dangs - Part II (Mints)

John Conduitt

Recommended Posts

This page is part of an identification guide for Golden Horde silver coins:
Part I (Dates)
Part III (Khans)


The remaining letters on the reverse contain the mint. One thing to look for is the phrase ‘struck in’ (ضرب). This will proceed the mint name, with the date at the bottom. I’ve listed most mints below and illustrated the common ones. Some didn’t cover the Islamic period after
Muhammad Öz Beg, while others struck bronze pulos (puls) but not silver dirhams (dangs). Bear in mind I don’t speak or write Arabic, so my interpretation might be rather loose. It’s also very common for only a small part of the mint name to make it onto a coin.

Note the inconsistent transliteration of mint names, the whereabouts of which might be unknown. This gives rise to a lot of different spellings. Sometimes adjectives are added, which do not necessarily mean it’s a different mint:
al-Jadida – the New
al-Mu'azzam – the Supreme

al-Mahrusa – the Guarded
al-Maqrusthe Blessed

If you click on a mint name, it will open a search page on Zeno with examples.


Bazjin. Puls rather than dangs.

Gulistan (گلستان), struck under Jani Beg, Berdi Beg, Qulpa (Kupna), Nauruz, Khidr (Khizr), Murad, Pulad Khodzha and Aziz Sheikh but apparently not later. Struck / in the city of Gulistan / 761 (٧۶١). Gulistan looks like a comb with a large S at the start:

Hajji Tarkhan/Khadzhi Tarkhan (حاجی‌ترخان), from Tokhtamysh onwards. This inscription runs around a tamgha. Tamgha of Küchük Muhammad / Struck in / Hajii Tarkhan:

Idil. Puls rather than dangs.

Il-uy Mu'azzam (ایلی معظم), used by later khans (Jalal al-Din, Dawlat Berdi and Ulugh Muhammad). Struck in / Il-uy / Mu'azzam. It has the potential to be confused with Azaq, except for the large S:

Saray al-Jadida (سراي الجديدة) and Saray al-Mahrusa (سراي المحروسة), a very common mint throughout the Golden Horde period. I look for what appears to be a large, slightly crooked W-shape towards the right. Struck in Saray / al-Jadida / 759 (٧۵٩) and 742 (٧۴٢):

Saray-Jük (Khidr, Ilbani, Kaban Beg, Tokhtamysh, Shadi Beg and Pulad).

Ukek. Mostly before the Islamic period.


Bilar (anonymous, before the Islamic period).

Bulgara/Bulghar (بلغار) and Bulghar al-Mahrusa (بلغار المحروسة). Many early Golden Horde coins (with tamgas) are from Bulgara but fewer in the Islamic period (Öz Beg, Shadi Beg, Pulad and the later khans). Struck in / Bulghara / Will Last / His Reign, 81. Like Saray, Bulghara also involves a W shape, usually (not always) with a central loop and a following J:

Mukshi/Mokshi (Öz Beg and Kildi Beg).

Nuroujat. Puls rather than dangs.

Rajan (Pulad). Thought to be a misreading of Bulghar.

Shonat/Shonghat. Puls rather than dangs.


Khwarizm/Khorezm (خوريزم). Struck coins throughout the period. Struck in / Khwarizm / year 746 (٧۴۶):

Qutlughkand (Mengu Timur and Tole Buqa, before the Islamic period)

Signak/Sygnaq (Urus, Tokhtamysh and Kunche). Struck in / Sygnaq:

Tirmidh (Jani Beg puls only).


al-Jadidah. Puls rather than dangs.

Aqcha Kerman (Öz Beg).

Azaq/Azak (آزاق), under Öz Beg, Berdi Beg, Qulpa (Kupna), Nauruz, Khidr (Khizr), Ordu Melik, Kildi Beg, Abdullah, Tokhtamysh, Shadi Beg, Pulad and some later khans. Azaq looks like IjI and a curl. The second example here shows how much you might have to use your imagination. Struck in Azaq / 762 (٧۶٢):

Kaffa Jadida (Shadi Beg, Pulad, Beg Sufi, Dawlat Berdi and Ulugh Muhammad). Struck in / Kaffa Jadida / 8-tamga-7 (807, ٨٠٧):

Kiliya al-Mahrusa (Abdullah).

Kosteshty-Gyrlia (Costești, Moldova). Puls rather than dangs.

Qirq-Yer (قيرق ير). Murtadha and the Giray khans.
Struck in Qirq-Yer 858 (٨۵٨):

Qrim/Krim (القرم), a very common mint (Crimea) throughout the Golden Horde period. Qrim looks like someone wrote ‘struck in’ too many times. I’m not even sure if I’ve traced over ‘struck in’ or Qrim. Struck in / Qrim / 825 (٨٢۵):

Saqche (Öz Beg).

Shahr Abd (Abdullah).

Shahr Now/Shahr-e Naw. Puls rather than dangs.

Yangi Kerman
(Öz Beg).

Yangi Shahr (يانكي شهر) al-Mahrusa/Shehr al-Jadid (Abdullah).
Struck in / al Makhrusa (God-Protected) / Yangi Shahr / 765:


Most of these mints issued few Golden Horde coins, mostly under Jani Beg, Berdi Beg and Tokhtamysh, and in a different style.

Amol (Jani Beg).

Ardabil (Jani Beg, Berdi Beg).

Baghdad (Jani Beg).

Bakuyeh (Tokhtamysh, Shadi Beg).

Bazar (Astarabad, بازار) (Jani Beg). Note the different style, where the coins were struck by the local ruler, Amir Wali. Struck in / Sultan, the Just / Jani Beg Khan / Immortalise His Name / Bazar:

Derbend (Shadi Beg, Tokhtamysh).

Elegis/Alagir/Alagiz (Berdi Beg).

Gushtapsi (Tokhtamysh).

Mahmudabad (Tokhtamysh).

Majar. Mostly before the Islamic period.

Maragha/Maragheh (Jani Beg, Birdi Beg).

Qara-Aghach (Jani Beg).

Shemakha/Shimakhi (Shadi Beg, Tokhtamysh).

Serah (Jani Beg, Birdi Beg).

Shaberan (Tokhtamysh).

Shimakhi/Shemakha (Toqtamish, Shadi Beg).

Shirvan/Shirwan (Jani Beg).

Tebriz/Tabriz (Jani Beg, Berdi Beg).

Wasit (Jani Beg).


Bik Bazari (Muhammad, Dervish, Checkre, Sayyid Ahmad II).

Haydar Bek Bazar (حيدربازار) (Sayyed Ahmad II). Note the legend seems to degenerate.

Orda/Ordu/Urdu (أوردو). This mint appeared under Abdullah and is common after that. A U-shape (on the right) followed by a long wavy flourish across the middle. Struck in Or / da / 717:

Ordu Bazar (Kuchuk Muhammad, Sayyid Ahmad I, Mahmud, Ahmad, Mohammad Bolaq).

Ordu Mu'azzam (أوردو معظم) (Tokhtamysh, Abdullah, Chekre, Sayyed Ahmad I). Struck in / Ordu Mu'azzam:

If you have the mint and date, it shouldn’t be too difficult to find the coin on Zeno using the links above. If not, you can try to identify the ruler in Part III (Khans).

Edited by John Conduitt
  • Like 6
  • Thanks 2
  • Clap 1
  • Heart Eyes 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • John Conduitt changed the title to Identification Guide to Islamic Golden Horde Dangs - Part II (Mints)
1 minute ago, JeandAcre said:

...Have you considered posting this on Academia.edu?

There are some amazing experts on these coins who not only go much further into each type (some khans have many varieties) but produce very detailed die studies charting the development of the legends. This guide is, shall I say, incredibly simplistic. But for someone like me who's not far from the beginning, the academic side is impenetrable (ok, often in Russian) and there isn't much in English just covering the basics.

  • Like 1
  • Cool Think 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Thanks for the illumination regarding academia.edu.  But to your point about, um, academic Russian, I can't even handle German, and sort of dog-paddle in French.  I'm sure this will be invaluable to monophones like me.  Sounding as though you're breaking some new ground in making this terrific stuff more accessible.

  • Yes 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

  • Create New...