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Faustina Friday – Faustina the Younger’s Beckmann Type 10 Hairstyle


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Friday felicitations, fellow Faustina fanatics! Today we're going to examine Faustina's last coiffures, the Beckmann Type 10 hairstyle. This represents the sixth in my ongoing series about Faustina the Younger's ten hairdos. I have previously written about the Beckmann Type 3, Type 5, Type 7, Type 8, and Type 9 styles.

How to Recognize this Hairstyle

The Beckmann Type 10 hairstyle is characterized by braiding into parallel rows, which are in turn braided loosely into a herringbone pattern pointing to a large chignon in the back. It's easier seen than described


FaustinaJrType10headCapitoline.JPG.ebc89e1a15d40223e6cefbbe54864c1b.JPG

Bust of Faustina the Younger, Rome, Capitoline Museum Inv. 310; DAI-ROM-4379. Photo by Gisela Fittschen-Badura.[1] Copyright © 2022, University of Cologne Archaeological Institute. Fair use for purposes of scholarship, teaching, and research.


This posthumous denarius well-illustrates the style.

FaustinaJrAETERNITASstandingdenariusbareheaded.jpg.a13e07aa90efe5e7b20a5a47d1655c18.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman AR denarius, 3.51 g, 19.0 mm, 6 h.
Rome, 176-180 CE.
Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
Rev: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing facing, head left, drawing out veil with right hand and holding long vertical torch in left hand.
Refs: RIC 739; BMCRE 706-707; RSC/Cohen 2; RCV 5212; CRE 155.


The empress is usually depicted with a right-facing bare-headed bust on her lifetime issues. Rarely, she is portrayed wearing a stephane or with a left-facing bust. On her posthumous issues, she is depicted either veiled or bare-headed.

Dating the Type 10 Hairstyle

This is the hairstyle used on all of the coinage issued posthumously for Faustina as well as on about a dozen types issued in the empress's lifetime. Therefore, we are on solid ground when assigning a terminus ante quem of sometime during the winter of 175-176 CE, when Faustina died in Halala, a small town in the Taurus Mountains of Cappadocia, where Marcus Aurelius had been campaigning following the revolt of Avidius Cassius.[2] Szaivert dates her death to sometime in November 175 because medallions issued in her name to celebrate New Years 176 already used posthumous titulature for her and they would have been minted some time in December in advance of New Years day. Szaivert reasonably assumes it would have taken some weeks for the news to reach Rome from Cappadocia, therefore placing her death in November.[3]

What about a terminus post quem? What's a reasonable earliest date for the use of this hairstyle? The Beckmann type 10 hairstyle first appears on the empress's aurei sometime after the death of Lucius Verus in January 169 CE.[4] Beckmann assigns this date because the details of the drapery on her aurei with the Type 10 portrait differ sharply from those bearing the Types 8 and 9, and do not find parallels on the coinage of Lucilla, whose coinage ceased upon the death of her husband.[5] Szaivert, without any explanation of his reasoning, postulates the final phase of Faustina's coinage (bearing this hairstyle) may have begun in response to the unforeseen death of her son Annius Verus[6] on or about 10 September 169.[7]

Because few aurei types were issued with this bust type and all of them were of very late date, Beckmann's die study of Faustina's aurei is not helpful for dating the other reverse types. Most of the coins bearing this bust type cannot be dated more precisely than 170-175 CE, except for those reverse types which also occur with earlier hairstyles, such as the IVNO, SALVS, and VENVS FELIX issues, which may be dated to c. 169-170.

Lifetime Issues Featuring the Type 10 Hairstyle

Faustina is depicted wearing this coiffure on medallions and posthumous coinage, but to list and illustrate all these would be unwieldy. Therefore, I'm going to limit the list and illustrations to her lifetime, regular issues. This bust type was used with the following reverse types:

 

  • CERES, Ceres seated, holding corn ears and long vertical torch (AR and Æ)
  • DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing right (Æ)
  • FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI (AR)
  • IVNO, Juno standing left (AR and Æ)
  • MATRI CASTRORVM, Faustina standing left, military standards before her (AV and Æ)
  • MATRI MAGNAE, Cybele seated left (AR)
  • MATRI MAGNAE, Cybele seated right (AV and Æ)
  • SALVS, Salus standing left (AR)
  • VENERI VICTRICI, Venus and Mars (Æ)
  • VENVS FELIX, Venus seated, holding statue of the 3 Graces or of Victory (AV, AR and Æ)
  • VESTA, Vesta standing (Æ).


Here are examples of the various reverse types featuring this portrait style. All coins shown are from my own collection apart from the SALVS denarius. These are only a fraction of Faustina's coinage on which the Type 10 hairstyle appears.

FaustinaJrCERESSClongverticaltorchsestertius.jpg.5c85191c02faddadb6fca346e70fe892.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman orichalcum sestertius, 24.67 g, 31.0 mm, 11 h.
Rome, c. 170-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
Rev: CERES S C, Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long, vertical torch.
Refs: RIC 1621; BMCRE 894; Cohen 36; Sear 5271; Banti 25; MIR 3-6/10c.
Notes: RIC incorrectly cites Cohen 37.


FaustinaJrDIANALVCIFERASCsestertiusdiademedbust.jpg.7989809cb13dfafc749db9b14ee3891c.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman orichalcum sestertius, 25.68 g, 32.3 mm, 1 h.
Rome, 170-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Bust of Faustina II, draped and wearing stephane, right.
Rev: DIANA LVCIFERA S C, Diana standing right, holding lighted torch in both hands.
Refs: RIC 1631; BMCRE 901; Cohen 91; RCV 5272 var. (no stephane); MIR 8-6/10c diad.
Notes: Obverse die-match to the British Museum specimen.


FaustinaJrFORTVNAEMVLIEBRIdenarius.jpg.90163bbda3a8212b0a10a3e981db6ebc.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman AR denarius, 2.82 g, 17.7 mm, 2 h.
Rome, 170-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
Rev: FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI, Fortuna Muliebris enthroned left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
Refs: RIC 683; BMCRE 96; Cohen 107; RCV 5253; CRE 181.


FaustinaJrIVNOdenarius.jpg.2bc5225bc39ed0aecd4475eb4e7f460d.jpg

Faustina Jr, 147-175 CE.
Roman AR Denarius, 3.54 g, 18.4 mm, 6 h.
Rome, 169-170 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right, Beckmann type 10 hairstyle.
Rev: IVNO, Juno, veiled, draped, standing left, holding patera in extended right hand and scepter in left hand; at left, peacock.
Refs: RIC 688; BMC 105; Cohen 120; RCV 5255; CRE 190.
Notes: Also known with the earlier Beckmann Type 7 and Type 9 coiffures.


FaustinaJrSALVSstandingdenariusType10bustBMC.png.2cad0b669d779f12b88a37e0577a33d3.png

Denarius of the SALVS, Salus standing left type, 169-170 CE (RIC 715). British Museum collection, BMCRE 141. Also known with the earlier Beckmann Type 7 and Type 9 coiffures.


FaustinaJrMATRICASTRORVMSClifetimesestertius.jpg.d5c4d3271feffcd3554d2d6abad93200.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman orichalcum sestertius, 23.24 g, 29.5 mm, 1 h.
Rome, 174-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
Rev: MATRI CASTRORVM S C, Faustina standing left, sacrificing over lighted altar and holding incense-box; three standards before.
Refs: RIC 1659; BMCRE 930-31; Cohen 164; RCV 5280; MIR 23-6/10a.
Notes: BMCRE 929 erroneously gives FAVSTINA AVGVSTA on obverse. The obverse inscription on that coin is in the dative case.


FaustinaJrMATRIMAGNAEdenarius.jpg.98a82a09f71629b8108b2c2aeaa62aa4.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman AR denarius, 3.20 g, 17.7 mm, 1 h.
Rome, c. 174-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
Rev: MATRI MAGNAE, Cybele seated left holding branch in right hand, resting left arm on drum; at her side, lion.
Refs: RIC 706; BMCRE 134; Cohen 192; RCV 5281; MIR 26; CRE 173.

Notes: Also known with Cybele seated right, but is extremely rare; @shanxi has (possibly) the only known example in his collection.


FaustinaJrMATRIMAGNAESCdupondius.jpg.eacdf9215b6d6f6132d86c4945ca57d4.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman copper alloy as or dupondius, 12.24 g, 26.1 mm, 1 h.
Rome, c. 174-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
Rev: MATRI MAGNAE S C, Cybele seated right, holding drum in left hand on left knee; to left and right of throne, lions, seated right.
Refs: RIC 1664, BMCRE 990; Cohen 170; RCV 5301; MIR 25.
Notes: Mattingly assigns coins of this type (along with other reverses) to her "last issue."[8] and even postulates that they may have been issued posthumously.[9] Since the empress is not called Diva, this latter notion is extremely unlikely.[10]


FaustinaJrVENERIVICTRICISCVenusandMarsas.jpg.0c970313359c03491df0deaa45cd2796.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman Æ as, 11.96 g, 24.5 mm, 7 h.
Rome, 170-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI S C, Venus standing right, placing both hands on the arm of Mars, standing facing, head left, holding round shield in left hand.
Refs: RIC 1680; BMCRE 999-1001; Cohen 241; RCV 5305; MIR 42-7/10c.


FaustinaJrVESTASCstandingMB.jpg.b93d4471709ef99cd214947bbcfb99df.jpg

Faustina II, 147-175 CE.
Roman Æ as or dupondius, 11.38 g, 26 mm, 6 h.
Rome, 170-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right; Beckmann type 10 hairstyle.
Rev: VESTA, Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and palladium.
Refs: RIC 1690; BMCRE 1004; Cohen 285; RCV 5307; MIR 45-7/10c.


Let's see your coins – whether lifetime or posthumous – depicting the Beckmann Type 10 hairstyle! As always, feel free to comment or post anything you feel is relevant.

~~~

Notes

1. "Portraitbüste Der Faustina Minor." Arachne, University of Cologne Archaeological Institute,
https://arachne.dainst.org/entity/2142938.

2. Levick, Barbara. Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 87-89.

3. Szaivert, Wolfgang, Die Münzprägung der Kaiser Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus und Commodus (161/192), Moneta Imperii Romani 18. Vienna, 1989, no. 19-7(a), p. 235.

4. Levick, op. cit., p. 171.

5. Beckmann, Martin, Faustina the Younger: Coinage, Portraits, and Public Image, A.N.S. Numismatic Studies 43, American Numismatic Society, New York, 2021, pp. 64-65.

6. Szaivert, op. cit., p. 231.

7. Levick, op. cit., p. 171.

8. Mattingly, Harold, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, vol. IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. Introduction, indexes and plates. London, BMP, 1968, p. cxliv.

9. Mattingly, op. cit., p. cxliv, n. 2.

10. Beckmann, op. cit., p. 65, n. 19.

Edited by Roman Collector
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53 minutes ago, Roman Collector said:

Nobody? 😞

OK, OK

normal_Faustina_II_62.jpg.6a2f1933f7b74faace9c9bb8442a6ed2.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 170-175
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, Beckmann type 10 hairstyle
Rev.: CERES, Ceres, veiled, seated left on cista, holding two corn ears and torch
Ag, 3.16g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC 669 (one of three hairstyle variations), CRE-I 160 [R]

 

normal_Faustina_II_160.jpg.15faf8c24b407835cb3e72b108910c79.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. (no globe)
Ag, 3.16g, 18x19.6mm
Ref.: RIC III 683, RSC 107, CRE-I 181 [S] var. (no globe)

 

normal_Faustina_II_59.jpg.c062e1f7e54dd5a4bb9ae350b58d6a58.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bust right
Rev.: IVNO, Juno, veiled, standing left, patera in right, long scepter in left, peacock at feet
Ag, 3.45g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC III (Marcus Aurelius) 688, CRE 190 [S]

 

normal_Faustina_II_21.jpg.48135db7da22a32008d59203b3f4c640.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA. Draped bust right.
Rev.: MATRI MAGNAE, Cybele seated left with branch and drum, behind her a lion.
Ag, 3.34g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC III 706, CRE 173 [S]

 

normal_Faustina_II_R513_fac.jpg.9a2f1f33adc97bdf985d09a65e772304.jpg

Faustina II
AR-Denar
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: SALVS, Salus standing left, feeding snake twined round altar, holding scepter
Ag, 3.18g
Ref.: RIC III 715 var., rare hairstyle variation, CRE 216 [R3]
Ex HD Rauch, auction 106, lot 229

normal_Faustina_II_28.jpg.3d9be02b7d238fc06831784b9c721a38.jpg

Faustina II
AR-Denar, Rome mint, posthumous AD 176 - 181
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right
Rev.: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing frontal, arranging veil and holding torch
Ag, 3.20g, 17.8mm
Ref.: RIC III 739, CRE-I 155 [S]

 

normal_Faustina_II_R688_fac0.jpg.21c3cb886f9a6f333b5cfb72def4db7f.jpg

Faustina II
AR-Denar, Rome mint
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, Draped bust right.
Rev.: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing left, holding globe surmounted by phoenix, and leaning on column.
Ag, 2.79g, 17.5mm
Ref.: RIC 740, CRE 157 [R2]

 

Faustina_II_R828_fac0.jpg.230e905af63668c2ace96265f835981e.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA. Draped bust right.
Rev.: MATRI MAGNAE, Cybele seated right with branch and drum, behind her a lion.
Ag, 3.83g
Ref.: RIC -, CRE- (this type with Cybele right is only know for Aurei)

cleaned and uncleaned
uncleaned picture: Kölner Münzkabinett

 

normal_Faustina_II_120.jpg.bfd0f4c008f4e5d425dacb44d507350c.jpg

Faustina II
AR-Denar, Rome mint, posthumous AD 176 - 181
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right
Rev.: CONSECRATIO, peacock standing right with head turned right, tail and wings closed
Ag, 3.25g, 16.8mm
Ref.: RIC III 744, RSC II 71, BMCRE 714, CRE 201 [R]

 

 

 

 

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1 hour ago, shanxi said:

OK, OK

normal_Faustina_II_62.jpg.6a2f1933f7b74faace9c9bb8442a6ed2.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 170-175
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, Beckmann type 10 hairstyle
Rev.: CERES, Ceres, veiled, seated left on cista, holding two corn ears and torch
Ag, 3.16g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC 669 (one of three hairstyle variations), CRE-I 160 [R]

 

normal_Faustina_II_160.jpg.15faf8c24b407835cb3e72b108910c79.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. (no globe)
Ag, 3.16g, 18x19.6mm
Ref.: RIC III 683, RSC 107, CRE-I 181 [S] var. (no globe)

 

normal_Faustina_II_59.jpg.c062e1f7e54dd5a4bb9ae350b58d6a58.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bust right
Rev.: IVNO, Juno, veiled, standing left, patera in right, long scepter in left, peacock at feet
Ag, 3.45g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC III (Marcus Aurelius) 688, CRE 190 [S]

 

normal_Faustina_II_21.jpg.48135db7da22a32008d59203b3f4c640.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA. Draped bust right.
Rev.: MATRI MAGNAE, Cybele seated left with branch and drum, behind her a lion.
Ag, 3.34g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC III 706, CRE 173 [S]

 

normal_Faustina_II_R513_fac.jpg.9a2f1f33adc97bdf985d09a65e772304.jpg

Faustina II
AR-Denar
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: SALVS, Salus standing left, feeding snake twined round altar, holding scepter
Ag, 3.18g
Ref.: RIC III 715 var., rare hairstyle variation, CRE 216 [R3]
Ex HD Rauch, auction 106, lot 229

normal_Faustina_II_28.jpg.3d9be02b7d238fc06831784b9c721a38.jpg

Faustina II
AR-Denar, Rome mint, posthumous AD 176 - 181
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right
Rev.: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing frontal, arranging veil and holding torch
Ag, 3.20g, 17.8mm
Ref.: RIC III 739, CRE-I 155 [S]

 

normal_Faustina_II_R688_fac0.jpg.21c3cb886f9a6f333b5cfb72def4db7f.jpg

Faustina II
AR-Denar, Rome mint
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, Draped bust right.
Rev.: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing left, holding globe surmounted by phoenix, and leaning on column.
Ag, 2.79g, 17.5mm
Ref.: RIC 740, CRE 157 [R2]

 

Faustina_II_R828_fac0.jpg.230e905af63668c2ace96265f835981e.jpg

Faustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA. Draped bust right.
Rev.: MATRI MAGNAE, Cybele seated right with branch and drum, behind her a lion.
Ag, 3.83g
Ref.: RIC -, CRE- (this type with Cybele right is only know for Aurei)

cleaned and uncleaned
uncleaned picture: Kölner Münzkabinett

 

normal_Faustina_II_120.jpg.bfd0f4c008f4e5d425dacb44d507350c.jpg

Faustina II
AR-Denar, Rome mint, posthumous AD 176 - 181
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right
Rev.: CONSECRATIO, peacock standing right with head turned right, tail and wings closed
Ag, 3.25g, 16.8mm
Ref.: RIC III 744, RSC II 71, BMCRE 714, CRE 201 [R]

 

 

 

 

That's what I'm talking about!!!!

Thank you for sharing your Cybele seated right MATRI MAGNAE denarius!! (Great job cleaning it, too!) That's unattested elsewhere and I suspect you have the only example of that coin in the world. There are only five explanations for its existence that I can think of:
 

  1. It was struck in silver with a reverse die intended for an aureus.
  2. It was cast from an aureus.
  3. It was struck from a reverse die intended for a denarius, but the engraver mistakenly engraved the image backwards.
  4. It is an ancient fourrée counterfeit or imitative issue.
  5. It is a modern forgery.


The problem with possibilities #1 and #2 is that the reverse does not match any of the eight reverse dies illustrated by Beckmann in his die-study of the aurei of Faustina II. That doesn't mean, however, that Beckmann's die inventory was complete.

The problem with possibility #3 is that such a mistake didn't seem to bother the mint officials during the Antonine period and a handful of "mirror image" reverse types are known, but scarcer than their non-mirrored counterparts, indicating the mint simply used the dies even if engraved erroneously. You'd think we'd know about more specimens in existence than yours. I suppose that only a few could have been struck in silver before the error was noticed and then the die might have been repurposed for aureus production. However, one would imagine that Beckmann would have seen aurei struck with the die.

As for possibilities #4 and #5, there's nothing in the photo to suggest it's a fourrée and its style is too good to be imitative. It looks like the product of the Rome mint. If it's a modern forgery, it is of unusually authentic style.

I'd love to hear your thoughts about it because you are the one who can examine it in hand and under the loupe.

I also like your SALVS denarius. I'm still on the prowl for one with the type 10 coiffure.

 

Edited by Roman Collector
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42 minutes ago, Roman Collector said:

I'd love to hear your thoughts about it because you are the one who can examine it in hand and under the loupe.

On the points:

1: Aureus dies / 
It's possible. The closest Aureus I have found is this:
https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=10103283

But it's also possible that this is from an unknown aureus die, perhaps one that was never used for gold coins.

2: Cast from an Aureus 
There are no traces of casting. The rim looks good, there are some sharp cracks and very fine flow lines, the surfaces look good. The thickness is also as expected for a struck coin (thinner on one side). 

3: Engraver's error /
Yes possible. I think that's also the reason for several busts facing left.

4: Fourée
I am usually too lazy to clean coins, but the green stuff made me think it was a fouree. But after cleaning, the cracks are open and I can see a bit inside the coin without any trace of a core.

5: Modern Fake /
 I don't think so. As you can see from the comparison with the Aureus, the style is very good.

Edited by shanxi
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4 minutes ago, Finn235 said:

I think this is an obverse die match to your first coin!

Divafaustinaiiaeternitas.jpg.b3749e5662d47972072b42034dc7af9b.jpg

I'm pretty sure this lifetime AE As is the correct hair type 

FaustinaIIAEAsJuno.jpg.9395ff3bc85c930284ef4cdd9bf83783.jpg

And the other posthumous denarius that got "gifted" to German customs 😞

Divafaustinaiiconsecratiotemple.jpg.be9482fbb4f9125afdc235ff77100ca3.jpg

Thanks for posting those, @Finn235!! Bummer about customs confiscating the posthumous CONSECRATIO/altar enclosure denarius. 😢

The IVNO as does indeed feature the Beckmann Type 10 bust. I'm still on the lookout for that variety. My IVNO middle bronze features the Type 7 coiffure. It was weakly struck, however, and metal didn't completely fill the die on the obverse, obscuring some of the hair detail.

FaustinaJrIVNOSCstandingMB.jpg.e5bd4b401d03448622517abdf87763b1.jpg

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5 minutes ago, shanxi said:

On the points:

1: Aureus dies / 
It's possible. The closest Aureus I have found is this:
https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=10103283

But it's also possible that this is from an unknown aureus die, perhaps one that was never used for gold coins.

2: Cast from an Aureus 
There are no traces of casting. The rim looks good, there are some sharp cracks and very fine flow lines, the surfaces look good. The thickness is also as expected for a struck coin (thinner on one side). 

3: Engraver's error /
Yes possible. I think that's also the reason for several busts facing left.

4: Fourée
I am usually too lazy to clean coins, but the green stuff made me think it was a fouree. But after cleaning, the cracks are open and I can see a bit inside the coin without any trace of a core.

5: Modern Fake /
 I don't think so. As you can see from the from the comparison with the Aureus, the style is very good.

Thanks for your detailed description of the coin in-hand! That's a very cool coin, however it came into being. I think it came out of the Rome mint in antiquity as the result of an error of some kind. I'm hoping another specimen will appear on the market at some point so I can get one for my collection, too!

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