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Political dynamics and dynastic echoes along the SW coast of the North Sea, early-mid-11th century. Linking to Billung dukes of Saxony.


JeandAcre

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This starts with the genealogical table in hopes it will lend some structure to the ensuing, effectively random bits of narrative context …which get along better with the coins in the first place.
(…I can only wish I could find a decent map online, limited to the coast, but ranging from Flanders to Frisia and northwestern Saxony.)

                                    Charles, son of the Carolingian Louis IV; duke of Lower Lorraine 977;                                                                                                                                imprisoned 991; d. c. 992-5; m. Adelaide of Troyes            
                                                                                                          |
   _________________________________                                                      |

   |                                              |                                                       |
Godfrey, duke of Lower   Gozelon, duke    Lambert I, ct. == Gerberga of                                                                                            
Lorraine 1012-1023        1023-44, m. ?      of Louvain       |   Lorraine 
    _________________________|_____                  994-1015         |________                              
    |                                           |                                                          |
Regelinde m. Albert II, ct.   Godfrey the Bearded,  Eustace I, ct.==Matilda of Louvain                          |                                             of Namur c.1018/31-1063      dk. of Lorraine           of Boulogne   |                                                                                                          |                                                                                                     |
    |                                       1044-6, 1065-9              1024-47        |   
    |                                           |                ____________________________
    I                                           |                I
Albert III, c.1063-1102           Ida m. Eustace II, ct. of                                                 
m. Ida, dau. of Bernhard II    Boulogne 1049-1087 
of Saxony. (Cf. the thread     (grandparents of King 
that begins with the Billung   Stephen of England). 
dukes.)                         
       
In approximate sequence, here are the coins.

AD_4nXcxs-evckUg2RbT_k7VaqqyzUIKh_nwicbY_OysHsKJ9JreeUTJ_I-tDBggIBGV1Hkm6vTsAI4I54uMxa7xDhqfn64RbDpMp_QVWel0OGQgPdGC_Wt2im-Fk5pI01teFbQk0qCFsfLt13QJUR965P4LJ4O5?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

 

Burgundy: Langres.  Denier in the name of Louis IV, King of Francia 936-954.  Early immobilization; c. 980-985 /1000 (temp. Charles of Lorraine).

Obv.  (Traces of an early, transitional degeneration of the original 'RX' (/'REX') monogram, further abstracted in later issues.)  

+HL[VP]<>VVICVS  ('HLVDOVICVS;' Louis.)

Rev.  Cross; no pellets in angles.

+LINcONI[S C\]/TS  ('LINCONIS C[I]V[I]T[AS];' City of Langres.)

Depeyrot 474 (for prototype); Dumas, Fécamp 6763-5.

Cf. Inumis, this listing from acsearch: 

https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=1109211

citing Dumas and the later Trésor du [Le] Puy, 'enfoui entre 998 et 1002.'*

The last surviving Carolingian male heir, Charles contested the election of Hugh Capet to the Francian throne (987).  Sorry, Charlie.  He was defeated, deposed and imprisoned, ending up far enough off the radar that even the year of his death remains a matter of dispute.

(Most of the following attributions, drawn from Ilisch, could be characterized as informed speculation. Along with the truly epic blundering of the legends, and the no less heroic range of variant legends and motifs, Ilisch only had a limited range of examples to consult in the first place. In light of the formidable numismatic expertise that he brought to the project, you can only appreciate what he was able to achieve. And yes, most of these are thanks to our very own @Annes Kabel, who lists on US ebay.)

AD_4nXcY7gbBrhZA57AXWqeJn7Zev38N1B2cSCa3Z-GmAzE40_GJwHTfg0JMV8Kmg068rFVZJQOuLmYThTn8EUNJLW25al8W_oEpYEqejWC3vhd-TfYDRYvWTxeZhz1rlWO2FzlJOI8_VrGgPuqJ4yHg13HrPlA?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

AD_4nXft5YoAJqagQ1yafr6pjk_5C-sO5ZKz_D3h2MdrsgkYYaHgFEJ3PfmroJoXlSBtKYmfyOPz_p1SyLout5XH9uF2IDs0EommhEPctLcpjgP5DnogzOO-Z4bmyNofXPMFR58VBoqDHrPyFwlI2n4Kz9Cz98K4?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Lower Lorraine: County of Louvain. Temp. Lambert I, 'the Bearded,' 994-1015.  Denier of Brussels, "debut du 11é s." (Elsen) / c. 1010-1030 (Ilisch).  Anon. denier, again in the name of Louis IV, with more of the same extreme blundering of the legends (sometimes retrograde), and riffing on motifs from recent issues, especially local ones.
Obv.  Cross; ornament in upper left angle; besants in other three.
(Ostensibly:) BRVX-SELLE.
Rev. (ostensibly:) LVDOVOCVS.  In field: (ostensibly:) MONETA.   
Elsen, Catalogue 159 (21 et 22 Juin 2024), 541; Ilisch 22.10 and variants through 22.14, mostly dated (no less circumspectly) to c. 1030 /1040. Cf. Kluge 289 for an earlier variant with much clearer legends.

Lambert resisted the eastward expansion of the county of Flanders, accelerating under Baldwin IV (998-1035).  Despite the Boulonnais counts' origins as cadets of Flanders, and more recent marital connections, Eustace I of Boulogne (1024-47) had corresponding concerns about safeguarding Boulogne's own recent expansion to the south and southeast.  The marriage gave Baldwin potentially hostile allies on both his borders.

AD_4nXdTLdsRR2fMunMtV_10lujgs6-Uf_B3xX0GdTRapeg4c9ZDTGR93Y4OK0yjriIH4HKgMwmxJnlFnK9Bw8_aV9AL1vyVd32-ZaDhiAvA2_PwHcDiG4PRoDd6VOp4b-Y26Jy2SIExjEoGPA6xsQ23J8TG0kBm?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Flanders: Baldwin IV (988-1035); denier of Arras, c. 1020.
Rev.  Cross; annulet and star(?) in upper angles. (From 1 o'clock:) +[BALD\]/INIm.  (Baldvinim.)
Obv. Quatrefoil, pellets around.  
Ilisch characterizes the legend as 'a distortion or pseudolegend,' beyond mere blundering, comparable to contemporary Scandinavian imitations of late Anglo-Saxon pennies.  Ilisch 6.11.  

AD_4nXdj-iK1qYaBs52QD2b2Tse7osYiC1mEbahhKv-g6WKZqR2xZDsIoRQDO4xsEePpY89fREdTRKQ-suLmxBUVK8nBpj8koewQzsT3BlQjEc1fySHAt9-sA2SiH_-srADmSyOr25NfUKQ9e127ScJb3hxijo4?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

AD_4nXf1d5gKOcBZxZ5ntHLR7EyPJ89BBc13ptBR1xlM8G4VCkThlqD7C08ic1nkbJXuClAi0bbgpA9_hQaN9GBWHLgnfIwyh9ygmiyIk5qB-chFh1fKN3d6tViflPLliMWzXJ8UDLHW_fGGFgdC8CVuYgkofU0E?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Denier, attributed, with a reasonable level of confidence, to Eustace I.  Issued in the smaller, southeastern county of Lens, within the Boulognese comital orbit.  
Obv. An already distorted rendering of the Carolingian ‘CAROLVS’ monogram, with correspondingly blundered legend.  
Rev.  Cross, annulet in one angle, pellets in other three.  Legend as above.  Ilisch, pp. 19 ff., 4.1 -4.5 (numerous variants; likely less than comprehensive), citing Dannenberg 1454 and 1455.
AD_4nXcUQQWpz3qdV0gR72BkyvlNQo4JraKALdWWWHuT3O9L2C8NA5_imX2ehLjr0EpG8Tj646r2R-T-EWrOzbpXU-i77xkQpaGYbVPt0K6R2dnbRQ2QDjxVuOCMaYBSU8-6Vgvtnt8VWrbn3ZdbfpqLnNycyKnG?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Antwerp (just within the northwest border of the Duchy of Lower Lorraine).  Anon. denier, approximately (Ilsen's emphasis, not mine) c. 1020; temp. Godfrey I (1012-23) and his brother and heir, Gozelon I (1023-44), Dukes of Lower Lorraine.  Also in the name of Louis IV, but freely adapting his and Carolingian predecessors' motifs, along with more copious blundering of the legends.  
Obv. motif: MONETA below the tympanum of a neo-Carolingian temple.  Cf. the example of Louvain, above.
Ilisch 26.2 -26.3, citing still more variant motifs and legends.

Following the demise of Charles of Lorraine, Godfrey I's family acquired considerable holdings in both the Upper and Lower parts of the duchy.  He was formally invested with the title of Duke of Lower Lorraine in 1012 by the Salian emperor Heinrich II.  In 1033, Konrad II made his brother Gozelon Duke of Upper Lotharingia as well.
AD_4nXe6tcaaQIDVok4X4bTBXoeZl6fI7dT3lnyx8z81cO-ScWky7x3ecE3YqHMi2XHZaExRTX3RCoL5wMscgk03k5lhTLKwonbGKu-N35jaW9oce9Rrh11IPyC_ctwZLInIpwlNie1b1Wivd05tW-OEwFgRgvdW?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

AD_4nXetgbgNTpktxnoaZJ6z1zz9qxm8J0JhV_pYTDwh4upCEH_gJrSEd3wWaBUfbrpExM0wNZW3VjfjW6-_IEMQAa3DIA8Oft7cG7rZKn2sphIsa4tuGmmp9hvCtw76iz_Ux9nOjPKsEriTPO0hOtMf5tE1kIRp?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Heinrich II as emperor, 1014-1024.  Denar of Strasbourg, effectively an imperial city within the duchy of Upper Lorraine.  
Obv. Heinrich facing.  (From 5 o'clock, retrograde:) HENRICVS IMPR AV
Rev. Two church towers above; one (front view, with arcade) below.  Cruciform mint signature: (vertical:) ARGEN[...] (/horizontal:) [...]TI[...]NA.
Kluge 82.

Below: Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Upper (then Lower) Lorraine.  Denar, first ducal reign, c.1044-1046. 
Obv. Godfrey facing; more understruck and otherwise blundered legends.  
Rev.  A stone construction; aerial view, evoking essays toward linear perspective on Roman murals, emulated in medieval manuscripts from the Carolingian period and following centuries.  Legends: more of the same.  Dannenberg 1311.     

AD_4nXfzcwjsNtN6TSQC-FRqHNPJ9SXKNlKZW9unDOOOAmcGHO-dxt6dN1QYqw6DiLvFKDPpH8U8x0da1TMz4I8uty9VQN_jDLMpVEGwJ6UO4It9skoRtvo86EllPI9k7ULp5RZq_nfYkQO1YzlA-P7ajpI6rZc0?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

AD_4nXeSBtnG5bDSIhrGwmjMKBwxcxKR3HBE7caaoCwuEI8nfppkUdwlL2C29O26I86oeDtxKSXiF3Ktrd6IBm5g692xaf6ryhkKg9dPTKxsuQDHR-lHb6arutMtAh6bfNZkyBb0Q0l6HxhH1L6BkDpMqbmXC91r?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Godfrey the Bearded was the elder son of Gozelon, brother and heir of the first Duke Godfrey.  But at the younger Godfrey's accession, Heinrich III balked at confirming his titles to both Upper and Lower Lorraine, which his father had held. The younger Heinrich, grandson of his namesake, feared the ongoing power of a united duchy.  More broadly, he was an active proponent of imperial prerogative, both toward the clergy and at the expense of such nascent feudal developments as the heritability of aristocratic offices.  (Contributing to the whirlwind, aristocratic as well as clerical, which his son Heinrich IV inherited.)  
Godfrey's response to the loss of the lower duchy was a revolt.  He was initially defeated and imprisoned, but by 1046 had renewed hostilities, joined by Baldwin V of Flanders.  Defeated again, he went to Tuscany.  Marrying Ida, the widow of the duke, he became the uncle of Matilda of Tuscany, who would famously receive the penance of Heinrich IV at Canossa.  In 1065, he was restored to the duchy of Lower Lorraine, where he ended his days.
AD_4nXeSmKXLEqqHUtMT1XPlMMLnuloZoRL7FXwKy3jrZ65EYTSMbOXQPyebKoayXYfumONCoMsD4eZvcW40G9gyGUXPym4m_x82VJwoYKZ1KHGU72JWCPfSxnzBCZv1KNOB1nW9JqjSG2wTbYvtvcfpXP8y3S_D?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

AD_4nXe-b17DaJvBwAbEk7jiwfifeFG5ISaOayHmwvXZM0Pbvuddw8c3ZiQDuAgtiPjBzDav_ghcVKz39ZkMK8uXAnMWqjFSFrojgmt_sxZ-elzZZChf0nOfsWNWhq0at8PA4TYz_KuTSzYhx-8PKYkx1oCDEu8?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Heinrich III (1039-56).  Denar of Strasbourg as Emperor, from 1046.  Typically for this region, blundered legends and weak strike, but with relatively accomplished engraving of the motifs, and an exemplary flan. 
Obv. Heinrich facing, crowned.  (Ostensibly, from 8 o'clock:) HEINRICVS [...] IMPR.
Rev.  St. Mary facing, haloed.  (Ditto:)  S-CA MARIA.
Dannenberg 709, Kluge 149.
AD_4nXeM6-0SzukDDLNvzp_6D2OVJZOeHjXuQP_hkITBhdaIU8-2-3-of0PLXJ1qc_gBcivt59e-bbU0RwZP1xhf3T-_Ym2wJ-Cd4ttjteTTT8mM2EEBcV02lRicAHxF1mQ6ElVCVAZ1pjYjOxn6SlvlQVeMTZw?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Lower Lorraine.  Albert II, Count of Namur 1018 -c. 1063/4.  Denier of Namur, before 1050.
Obv.  Diademed profile.  (From 8 o'clock:) ALBERTVS. 
Rev. (from 12 o'clock:) [+]NAMVCENSI[S].  In the field: monogram: MONE [/] T [/]A. Dannenberg 165, Ilisch 31.9, Kluge 291.

What follows are two examples of an issue of Dinant, after 1040.  Both sets of legends being as weakly struck as they are, you can just have the full legends, and squint out what's there on your own watch.
Obv. Diademed profile; (from 8 o'clock:) ALBERTVS 
Rev. Voided cross; annulet in center, crescents in angles.  (From 12 o'clock:) +dEONAM.  Dannenberg 176, Ilisch 30.7.
AD_4nXcxqnI2bv-uGo3HpMDllUhOd8vhCIanCrLc_rlNyGE_rNem16ANS55fUBfKbYgTYB4ruMLNQ4PzV_6Qz49FBvnXhZss5ESJHrGAsXjYDG6LEzHlKlQ5_VRESrtTdd2UIIA-OjIxh63XNynO8kNMGSux-zxE?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

AD_4nXdkqBwC_EX4lcbC1yB3H5asYwDQI8RJBirj2z1DBpLNsullN-IrKF4Vg_F3uNbQJSO2mowTUMNtfV2d9o2r4V11IqXcl8tNgOiu8DK0IFwHhznF5cHZBXMT1IhRdKnM7Iy5Oj3UXIfDb4c3rAXOWa_lG-ry?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

The counts of Namur were traditionally vassals of the dukes of Lorraine. It seems a safe guess that Albert's marriage to Regelinde, sister of Godfrey the Bearded, was in part an affirmation of ongoing loyalty, despite imperial appropriation of the duchy.

AD_4nXf3Ty0cV2cIHiZl0HKwLsnfCt4KquUT7sHQJRE77IBsecHJdjZdodAy-Bet-50uA03WkPUSfzNhszgVFN0E42SFhNEbuy70b2oo2HDAby_aBsZpKWExAYtwB3TqDRj0odSBM9dxoGgw3hAJi3Tfv_CUfXEY?key=_qVWSTy5X9GGYqRY6okWqw

Albert III, b. c. 1035; count c. 1063- 1102.  Denier of Dinant.  A coissue with  his mother, Regelinde of Lower Lorraine (c. 1010/5-after 1067), acknowledging her regency during to his formal minority. 
Obv.  Albert, with tiara, facing his mother, Regelinus, with long hair.  
(From 11 o'clock, but reading counterclockwise, and retrograde:)  +AL[BT].
On the opposite side of the initial cross: [REINT.] (retrograde), or [REILE] (not)..
Rev.  [+]DE[ONANT].
Ilisch, 2014, No. 30.10; obverse legend variant noted under the same listing.  Citing Dannenberg 1822.  Ilisch dates the issue to c. 1064-1075, early in Albert's majority; a lifetime issue of Regelinde might involve an earlier terminus than he proposes.

Albert III proceeded to marry into the Billung ducal family of Saxony.  Anyone who wanted the prequel to that could find some of it in the OP of this (trust me, otherwise brilliantly divergent) thread.

*With immobilizations as early as this, which tend to pick up new variations with particular speed, the problem of assigning appropriately narrow date ranges is especially fraught.  Depeyrot even proposes a slightly later date for the deposit of the Fécamp Hoard.  Relative to current scholarship, from an American kind of place, it's easy to throw up one's hands.
But on the basis of the relatively distinct stylistic variations in this example, the nearest matches are in Dumas and the Inumis listing.  Suggesting an  early phase, still later in the 10th century; corresponding to the milieu of Charles of Lorraine.  

Principal references in print.

Dannenberg, Die Deutschen Münzen Der Sächsischen Und Fränkischen Kaiserzeit.  1876, etc. (Only accessible via .pdf.; Not Liking It!)

Depeyrot. Le Numéraire Carolingien [:] Corpus de Monnaies.  3rd ed, 2008. 

Ilisch.  His monograph in Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde, 100. (Special: Amsterdam, 2014.)  Attempting to cover all of the late Carolingian, Ottonian, earlier Salian and feudal issues of Lower Lorraine, c.10th-early 12th centuries. Including photographs and older line drawings, the latter often from Dannenberg.  
As noted earlier, the range of variant motifs and legends converged with the relatively small number of examples which Ilisch was able to consult.  One may assume that any number of other variants remain unpublished.

Kluge, Bernd.  Deutschen Munzgeschichte von der späten Karolingerzeit bis sum Ende der Salier (Ca. 900 bis 1125). 1991.

John, Simon.  Godfrey of Bouillon.  Routledge 2018.  1st paper ed., 2019.  

Tanner, Heather.  Families, Friends and  Allies: Boulogne and Politics in Northern France and England, c. 879-1160.  2004.

 

Edited by JeandAcre
Formatting Wars with the table (I'm a decorated veteran)
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A very enlightening post - many thanks @JeandAcre.  I'm intrigued by the Heinrich II coin of Strasbourg which has the magnificent facing bust on the obverse;  there are some wonderful tenth century episcopal coins from Strasbourg - although no bishop is named on this coin, could this be a joint regnal/ episcopal issue?  

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Many thanks, @Grimulfr.  Not least for your illuminating point.  Regarding a joint ecclesiastical /imperial issue, perhaps even relating to this mint, it's very likely that Kluge's extensive interpretive matter covers the dynamics in some detail.  Sadly enough, my German is effectively nonexistent.  However, given that the catalogue per se consistently distinguishes imperial, ecclesiastical and secular aristocratic issues, one feature emerges.  For the ecclesiastical issues of Strasbourg, several are issued in emperors' names (cf. nos. 475-83).  But this abruptly stops at the end of the Ottonian dynasty.  From that point, issues are consistently in individual bishops' names (nos. 484-6).

...Clearly some sort of shift occurred with the ascent of the Salians.  ...In a recent post in this (Medieval) category, someone said a great deal, very specifically about imperial and ecclesiastical minting rights during the Salian period.  --Was it you?  If so, Please, Don't be shy about a reiteration or a link!  (Yes, now I will have to try to find it.)  

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3 minutes ago, JeandAcre said:

Many thanks, @Grimulfr.  Not least for your illuminating point.  Regarding a joint ecclesiastical /imperial issue, perhaps even relating to this mint, it's very likely that Kluge's extensive interpretive matter covers the dynamics in some detail.  Sadly enough, my German is effectively nonexistent.  However, given that the catalogue per se consistently distinguishes imperial, ecclesiastical and secular aristocratic issues, one feature emerges.  For the ecclesiastical issues of Strasbourg, several are issued in emperors' names (cf. nos. 475-83).  But this abruptly stops at the end of the Ottonian dynasty.  From that point, issues are consistently in individual bishops' names (nos. 484-6).

...Clearly some sort of shift occurred with the ascent of the Salians.  ...In a recent post in this (Medieval) category, someone said a great deal, very specifically about imperial and ecclesiastical minting rights during the Salian period.  --Was it you?  If so, Please, Don't be shy about a reiteration or a link!  (Yes, now I will have to try to find it.)  

No, it wasn't me but would be very interested in the post if you do find it.  Are there any facing bust issues in the Ottonian series that pre-date this coin?

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Posted (edited)

Yes!!!  For "geistlicher Herren" in Strasbourg, Kluge lists exactly one.  It's from Widerold, Bishop 991-99.  Wish I could scan it.  The full obverse legend is OTTO IMP AVG, with a crowned facing bust of Otto II or III.  The reverse has a purely decorative central motif, with the legend +VVITEROLT EPS.  (481.)

(instant edit:) I'm having the usual bad luck finding the post about Salian minting from any search terms I can come up with.  It'll take looking at individual threads.)  

(...On a similar, even more self-indulgent note, regarding the formatting of the family tree, I tried editing it after it had been posted here.  Looked great.  Went back to what it looks like here, and literally nothing had changed.

(Don't know if that was another little snag involving how drafts in Google Docs translate in this format, or what.  I know I did what I could.)

Edited by JeandAcre
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