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The Countermark Show - show them here


Prieure de Sion

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For whatever reason, I don't often get coins with countermarks - I've honestly never bothered much with them either. Now I got this Caligula Vesta AE As with the countermark TICA. Apparently this countermark is supposed to stand for Claudius (Tiberius Claudius) or Titus (Titus Caesar - less likely).

During my research I came across this website: http://www.romancoins.info/Countermarks.html 

And at the end of the website, the reference to the literature:

Quote

For Western Countermarks on official Roman coins and their Imitations:

  • Rodolfo Martini, "Nomismata 6: The Pangerl Collection of Julio-Claudian Countermarked Coins ( Augustus-Vespasian)" ca. 310 pages, including 24 plates, reproducing 352 coins, in Italian with extensive English summary, ISBN 88-87235-29-5  -  The first systematic catalogue of Countermarks on official Roman coinage (sold out),   A pdf download can be found here: Pangerl-Martini-Download
  • "Roman Provincial Coinage" shows a brief summary of countermarks on Roman Provincial coins including those on Spanish Provincial coins
  • "BMC I (Augustus to Vitellius)" provides valuable information on Roman countermarks to the extent of knowledge in 1923

For Eastern Provincial Countermarks on Greek Provinical Coins:

  • For countermarks on Eastern Provincial coins the standard is "Greek Imperial Countermarks" by C. Howgego (out of print for almost 20 years now available as reprint).

 

And here is my TICA Caligula.

 

CALIGRIC38TICA.png.c47ed7c769ea1e3062172fcaec346804.png

Caligula, Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
As of the Roman Imperial Period 37/38 AD; Material: AE Bronze; Diameter: 27.5mm; Weight: 10.65g; Mint: Rome; Reference: RIC I (second edition) Gaius/Caligula 38; Obverse: Head of Caligula, bare, left. The Inscription reads: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT for Caius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunicia Potestate (Gaius Caesar, Augustus, conqueror of the Germans, high priest, holder of tribunician power); Reverse: Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left. The Inscription reads: VESTA S C for Vesta, Senatus Consultum (Vesta, by the decree of the senate); Comment: As of Caligula, Germania Inferior? The countermark is either from Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus), or, less likely from Titus (Titus Caesar Augustus) - see countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 58

 

 

I would be pleased if you would show me your coins with counterstamps. Which counterstamped coins do you have? And what is the significance of the counterstamps?

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Claudius Sestertius with PROB Countermark, 41-50
image.png.c9cb4006c5bdaa0e817ffd09fe0da0ac.png
Rome. Bronze, 24.75g. Laureate head right; TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP. Oak-wreath; EX SC OB CIVES SERVATOS (RIC I, 96). After the conquest of 42, large quantities of early OB CIVES SERVATOS (without PP) were issued for Britain, all countermarked PROB.

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Caligula As, 37-41
image.png.1caad37eacf9517fb05c70497be4070c.png
Rome. Bronze, 27mm, 10.26g. Agrippa (45-12BC) issued by Caligula (37-41) and countermarked by Claudius (41-54). Head of Agrippa, left wearing rostral crown; M AGRIPPA L F COS III. Neptune standing left holding dolphin and trident; S C; TIAV countermark (RIC I, 58). Ex James Pickering. The countermark was applied to barbarous imitations and worn coins to allow their use in the provinces, where there was a coin shortage.

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7 minutes ago, John Conduitt said:

Rome. Bronze, 24.75g. Laureate head right; TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP. Oak-wreath; EX SC OB CIVES SERVATOS (RIC I, 96). After the conquest of 42, large quantities of early OB CIVES SERVATOS (without PP) were issued for Britain, all countermarked PROB.

Wow... "in your face!" - I wonder if the emperor liked that right to his face?!  😄 

PROB = probare?

 

9 minutes ago, John Conduitt said:

Rome. Bronze, 27mm, 10.26g. Agrippa (45-12BC) issued by Caligula (37-41) and countermarked by Claudius (41-54). Head of Agrippa, left wearing rostral crown; M AGRIPPA L F COS III. Neptune standing left holding dolphin and trident; S C; TIAV countermark (RIC I, 58). Ex James Pickering. The countermark was applied to barbarous imitations and worn coins to allow their use in the provinces, where there was a coin shortage.

TIAV = Tiberius Claudius Augustus ?

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This one has 5 cmks on obverse (Nike flying right, two overlapping star-shaped  puches, a circular incuse and an uncertain figure advancing right, possibly another Nike), The coin has a glossy smooth surface on the reverse but a slightly granular and "dusty" looking obverse. 

CNG MBS 72 (14 June 2006) lot 1196 shows a similar example with the Nike flying right and what they identify as a "pelllet-within D-within annulet in incuse circle" (Howgego 262 and 669).

Cilicia, Ninica-Claudiopolis. Severus Alexander, AD 222-235. Æ27 (10.46g, 6h). Obv: IMP C [M AVR SEV]ER ALEΧAΝΔER; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front. Rev: NINI COL CLAVΔ, IOP-O/L across field; Marsyas advancing left, holding wineskin over his left shoulder and raising his right hand. Ref: SNG von Aulock 5773 (same dies); SNG Levante 613 (same dies).  

image.jpeg.57a0035965835a36d6d470fe3706394b.jpeg

Edited by Edessa
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18 minutes ago, Prieure de Sion said:

... thats cool!

Thanks! I really like the depiction of Marsyas going to party! The lower left countermark looks like it could be the same as the Nike. I suspect it was done first but didn't come out with enough detail, so the "Countermarker" moved to the top of the coin and made a second attempt. The same may have happened with the overlapping star punches. Do we have a term for "one-who-countermarks"?

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Here's my favorite countermarked coin.

331A3702-Edit.jpg.9948f102566a38031042fc323ac72d47.jpg

Cilicia, Tarsos: Pharnabazos
379-374 BCE
AR stater, 24mm, 10.3 g
Female head facing
Bearded and helmeted head left, test cut and two countermarks, one of "bull crossing (with crescent?)" and one of "wolf leaping with crescent at rear" (Callatay countermarks B and C)
SNG Cop. 266

 

I've written about this coin before, but here's a rehash of the relevant info on what I believe the countermarks mean. My research comes from this de Callatay article.

From de Callatay's resource, the bottom countermark is clearly "wolf leaping with crescent at rear" (countermark C). I believe the right countermark is type B "bull crossing with crescent". Although the photo doesn't imply it, upon examining the coin with a magnifying glass, I see what appears to be a crescent over the rear of the bull. Per de Callatay, this is also the most common countermark and he notes one coin with both countermarks B and C issues by Pharnabazos (which could be this one).

These coins are believed to have been issued for military purposes, and the most likely reason for this one would have been Pharnabazos' second foray into Egypt. 

While de Callatay doesn't reach a reason for the countermarks, he casts doubt on the common speculation of banker's marks. Countermark B, for example, was used on the coins of 11 different mints. He therefore believes they had some official use. They could have been marks of quality, earmarked for a particular general, used to pay for a temple, or for other purposes. We don't really know. I did a search of countermarks on ACSearch and found five examples of the bull and none of the wolf. The original attribution of the coin was a lion, though de Callatay believes it's a wolf. Regardless, I couldn't find any samples with either a wolf or a lion, let alone two countermarks.

Unlike many other collectors, I actually like test cuts because it means the coin was used and adds to its story. Of the five examples I found with bull countermarks, two have test cuts. That tells me the cuts weren't automatically applied with the countermarks and the two were presumably for different purposes. My guess is the test cut was for the standard reason - to verify the coin before use.

Going back to the countermarks, this is just my speculation, but I believe they were rendered at different times. de Callatay mentions four Pharnabazos issues with countermark B (bull) and three with countermark C (wolf). He mentions one coin with both countermarks and one coin with three countermarks (probably would have had heart failure if I'd managed that one). Looking at my coin, the bull is pressed in far more than the lion. Again, we don't know what the exact purposes for, but my speculation is they were different.

Interestingly, per de Callatay the countermarks were used across rulers, but their progression can be used to help date coins. Whatever their uses, they don't appear to be for a "one time" event.

So, even though it's rough, from the time it was issued my coin was likely used to pay a soldier in Pharnabazos' second Egyptian campaign. It then served three purposes (two of them official) and finally underwent something that resulted in its loss until today.

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I have another....

PAMPHYLIA. Side. Caracalla, 198-217. Pentassarion (?) (Bronze, 30 mm, 17.51 g, 1 h).

Obverse. AY K M AY CEY ANTΩNЄINOC Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla to right; above, star; on cheek, countermark: Є within circular incuse.

Rev. CIΔH/TΩΝ The river-god Melas reclining left, holding pomegranate tree in his right hand and leaning left on urn from which water flows. SNG Paris -. SNG PFPS 699. SNG von Aulock -. For countermark, Howgego 803.

Very rare. Areas of weakness, otherwise, about very fine. Ex-Leu Numismatik, 2021, Lot 2587

car_pamph.jpg.728287aa3d31151cb161b6d3834bec61.jpg

Edited by Ancient Coin Hunter
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Wasn't sure  if non-Roman Republic coins were  ok for this,  but now there are some, here's a slightly countermarked early trite from Sardes.

 

LYDIA, 610-546 BC.
Electrum trite (1/3 stater), 4.70 g, 12 mm. Uninscribed issue of Sardes.

screenshot-2022-12-25-at-17-43-25-vilmar-cat-04-proof-pdf_orig.png

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8 hours ago, Ancient Coin Hunter said:

I have another....

PAMPHYLIA. Side. Caracalla, 198-217. Pentassarion (?) (Bronze, 30 mm, 17.51 g, 1 h).

Obverse. AY K M AY CEY ANTΩNЄINOC Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla to right; above, star; on cheek, countermark: Є within circular incuse.

Rev. CIΔH/TΩΝ The river-god Melas reclining left, holding pomegranate tree in his right hand and leaning left on urn from which water flows. SNG Paris -. SNG PFPS 699. SNG von Aulock -. For countermark, Howgego 803.

Very rare. Areas of weakness, otherwise, about very fine. Ex-Leu Numismatik, 2021, Lot 2587

car_pamph.jpg.728287aa3d31151cb161b6d3834bec61.jpg

If that E does indeed indicate 5, then why put it on? Wasn't it pretty much understood that bronzes of this size were pentassaria?

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Interesting coin, @Prieure de Sion.  The TICA/TICAE that I've seen are usually on small AEs from the Balkans, imitations of Imperial issues.  Yours is a nice, big Imperial issue that looks official to me.  I've not seen many of these so countermarked, if any.  

The countermarks are possibly a way for the authorities (the Army, probably) to validate little, cruddy AEs for circulation.  Nobody knows for sure.  

I have several of these - here is a selection of some of the more attractive ones in my collection (ha ha):

CM-LotofTICAsNov2018(0x).jpg.6483dd2ee12de6d3786b51238ef08d2f.jpg

CM-TICAgreenlotAug2019(0).jpg.2d1685f3016ad4ad929a954efb56c82a.jpg

Countermark-TICAforTiberiusMay2018(2).JPG.0b1e1a18c102071f0e86ce9e39826561.JPG

The TICA types are often found with other countermarks as well: 

CM-TICAEAVGHelmentlotAug2019(0).jpg.6ee048103afdf66b8d0f2bd1cea55266.jpg

Ephesus / Moesia    Æ 25 (As) Augustus (c. 25 B.C.Tiberius c/m (c. 14-37 A.D.) [CAESAR?], bare head right / [AVGVS]TVS in wreath? Uncertain attribution. Countermarks:  AVG, TICÆ  and Helmet obverse  / Dolphin reverse (7.97 grams / 24 mm)  eBay Aug. 2019 Lot @ $1.57

Countermarks:  AVG, TICÆ and Helmet obverse  / Dolphin reverse

M. Pangerl Collection:

75 (AVG), 

90 (TICÆ)

98 (Helmet)

95 (Dolphin)

 

 

 

Edited by Marsyas Mike
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14 hours ago, hotwheelsearl said:

If that E does indeed indicate 5, then why put it on? Wasn't it pretty much understood that bronzes of this size were pentassaria?

I am hardly an expert in provincial denominations, but I believe this coin would be worth a value similar to a Sestertius. Smaller coins might be worth what an As or Dupondius was. The legend above comes off the dealer description in the auction.

Edited by Ancient Coin Hunter
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Cool! I like countermarks, too, but I'm too busy accumulating Faustina coins that I haven't purchased one in a while.

Gotta have a bucranium:

[IMG]
Trajan. A.D. 98-117.
Roman orichalcum as, 8.49 g, 23.5 mm, 6 h.
Struck in Rome for circulation in Syria (?); Struck in Antioch (?), AD 115/16.
Obv: IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM, radiate and draped bust right; c/m: bucranium within incuse punch.
Rev: DAC PARTHICO P M TR POT XX COS VI P P around laurel wreath enclosing large SC.
Refs: RIC 647; BMCRE 1094; Cohen 123; RCV 3243; Woytek 937v; McAlee 509; Strack 479; BN 953-5. For c/m: Pangerl 63; Howgego 294.

Laurel branch:

[IMG]
Trajan, AD 98-117.
Roman Provincial Æ 29 mm, 15.86 g, 12 h.
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Antioch, AD 115-116.
Obv: ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙϹ ΝΕΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟϹ ΑΡΙϹΤ ϹΕΒ ΓΕΡΜ ΔΑΚ, laureate head, right. Countermark: laurel branch in incuse rectangle, Howgego 378 (69 sp.).
Rev: S·C in laurel wreath; Є below.
Refs: RPC III 3616; cf. BMC 20, p. 185, 286 (with same countermark); Wruck 196; McAlee 489(e).

A circle surrounded by a triangle:

[IMG]
Severus Alexander AD 222-235.
Roman provincial Æ 24 mm, 9.19 g.
Cilicia, Seleukeia ad Kalykadnon.
Obv: AV K M AVP CEOVH AΛEΞANΔPOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: CEΛEVKEΩN KAΛVΚA-ΔNΩ, confronted, draped, and laureate busts of Apollo and Artemis, c/m: o within Δ within triangular incuse.
Ref: Ziegler 474-476; SNG France 2 1009; SNG Levante 761; SNG Levante Suppl. 195; SNG Pfalz 1056-61; Waddington 4468; Lindgren III 898; RPC Online VI 7043. Countermark: Howgego 670.

Maybe an anchor????

[IMG]
Julia Iotape, Queen of Commagene AD 38 - 72
AE diassarion, 23.4 mm, 13.64 g, 12 h
Syria, Commagene, Samosata mint
Obv: ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΑ ΙΩΤΑΠΗ ΦΙΛΑ∆ΕΛΦΟΣ, diademed and draped bust of Iotape, right; countermark: anchor?
Rev: ΚΟΜΜΑΓ−ΗИΩИ, scorpion and inscription all within laurel wreath
Refs: Lindgren-Kovacs 1887; RPC I 3858; BMC Galatia p. 109, 4; Nercessian AC --; SNG Cop VII 5; similar to Sear GIC 5514 (which has lunate sigmas in the inscription).
 
 
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Here's a countermark that caught my attention recently

EretnidAlal-DnAl2.jpg.5d49bd98c23ad00ab16b52e5b62bf4cf.jpg

'Alā al-Dīn 'Alï (Ali Beg) (767-782 AH / CE 1366-1380) - Album 2324A AR akçe 1.61g, countermarked lillah in eye-shaped frame on earlier type of the same ruler.

Notes on this coin are here with more coins from the same ruler (countermarked and not): https://www.sullacoins.com/post/the-eretnid-beyliks

 

And a Seleucid anchor on this coin from Side:

PamphyliaSideTetAnchor.jpg.0b931311471ec98363de045bc4162c39.jpg

Notes on this coin here: https://www.sullacoins.com/post/between-the-seleucid-and-attalid-kingdom

 

Edited by Sulla80
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In my active period of collecting, I never skipped the opportunity to buy coins made cheaper because the seller considered them damaged by countermarks.  It is hard to pick a favorite but I believe it is the bull with legible Aramaic legend "Luy" = Ba'al.

0b00450.jpg

 

The same mark in lower grade appears here:

g61890b00518lg.JPG.5e547c10701c67726ad123c8e93650f9.JPG

 

I believe (and may be the only one who does) that this c/m on the coin of  Tarkondimotos was placed intentionally to erase the part of the legend reading 'friend of Antony' by the sons of the late issuing pirate as part of their effort to curry favor with Octavian after Actium.  My example was misapplied breaking the coin and sparing the legend usually missing on this type. 

g61926rp1301.jpg.df80468d3f046b60ec5628a7dd83d82b.jpg

 

Some coins gain extra credit for having several c/m's.  The owl is cute.  I greatly regret failing to buy an Athenian tetradrachm I once saw that had an owl in the reverse field that had all the correct size and style to have been made using a retired obol reverse die.  I bid too little and will never know if the winner bought it for the c/m or in spite of it. 

g71710fd0590.jpg.851a188144c7fc4260517c2cac851f22.jpgg61805fd3291.jpg.8c065845c92ec4fb59068d8dca466e2c.jpg

 

Others are better for the placement of the mark with relation to the host coin.  Did the snake eat the owl?

g61560bb1613.jpg.0bbf7ffa4607a9187b7cbc0d809db585.jpgg61820b00258lg.jpg.41de60aa78fc6e1ea991b680e163b609.jpg

 

This is my smallest coin with an ancient c/m (bird under deer).

g61640bb1445.jpg.8952d1f430416a9ef9a944b23b338840.jpg

 

There are also modern c/m's placed on ancient coins.  I wish I had one of the famous Gonzaga eagles to show but they are popular and expensive.  I believe the H here is a Cyrillic 'N' but I remain unsure of the meaning. g30890bb1668.jpg.d55ce14e83470bcae2b7427d6e28b71a.jpg

 

Of my c/m's on coins of the Roman period, a favorite is this Tiberius on Augustus.  It is in the catalogs but few are anything close to this clear. 

rb0885fd1507inset.jpg.25e9dcbc96ede3401ed221b2e06a00b5.jpg

 

IMO, king of all countermarks is the circular replacement legend on the coin of Drusus and Germanicus.  My example is, like most, rather poor.  It is actually harder to find this coin without the c/m.

pb0060b02284lg.jpg.37f94f14612178f6552e1c401740d127.jpgpb0058fd2966.jpg.3ddebb52b30c539e43f130786e4ba841.jpg

Julio Caudian period bronzes have a lot of countermarks.  NCAPR is common. They tend to be placed in the same position ech time on a particular type but that position is different for each type.  This Nero Claudius Drusus is correctly placed behind the head.

rb0970bb0065.jpg.dc8750b2ed35393095eed5da35ab95a8.jpg

The Claudius is usually behind the head rather than in front.  Should I be concerned about this variation?

rb1025fd2545.jpg.cb436df60e29b1e417071537e0b2da7b.jpg

 

The AD on Claudius is the only one I have seen.  Who has a guess at the meaning? 

rb1040bb0177.jpg.5bb5f61d99c40b20c6312873cc29ea59.jpg

 

Finally, a favorite is DV used on unofficial and well worn sestertii of Claudius down-valuing them to dupondius.  They are rather common.  In addition to the c/m, these always seem to have a shallow test cut at 3 o'clock on the obverse.  Why?  IDK!

rb1070b02403alg.jpg.c6dafd4176190120889c3f8ec5d566e9.jpgrb1075aa2149.jpg.0a92dbf5500205cb3822c806a3355365.jpg

 

Did I mention that I like c/m's?

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4 hours ago, dougsmit said:

I believe (and may be the only one who does) that this c/m on the coin of  Tarkondimotos was placed intentionally to erase the part of the legend reading 'friend of Antony' by the sons of the late issuing pirate as part of their effort to curry favor with Octavian after Actium. 

Hi @dougsmit,

Your idea is confirmed by Nicholas Wright in "Tarkondimotid responses to Roman domestic politics: from Antony to Actium"

- Broucheion

Edited by Broucheion
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Countermarks, I like them too, many of the ones above are not only interesting but also beautiful, especially those on Greek coins. I'm not much into test cuts, though sometimes they do good to a coin, like this one:

1515Sinopedrachmnm.jpg.6d4b9addb4bedcbb12270e666b2768ce.jpg

AR drachm Sinope. 425-410 BC. Obv. Head of sea-eagle left; below, dolphin to left; test cut in the eagle’s beak. Rev. Quadripartite incuse square with two opposing quarters filled; Θ. 14-15 mm, 5.86 gr. Hoover 388 (S). What I also like is that the head of the eagle more or less coincides with the coin, even the notch is in place of the beak. This is how it becomes a sculpture!

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Then there's Roman coins, the early ones with a strictly regulated signboardlike countermark:

2121Tonzosnm.jpg.72182692128160875cd831ce441314a4.jpg

2121 C. Unidentified host, AE as. Countermark TONZOY (Tonzou), but the sign says TONZO only and it has a mirrored Z. Variation or imitation? The sign points to a river in Macedon. 21 mm, 4.24 gr. 

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And this Provincial Roman coin with a star sign: 

3108Cnm.jpg.906cf8b4a3ce1a2efe00e654c39a46d4.jpg

3108 C. Domitianus 81-96, Phrygia, Cibyra. AE 23 mm. Obv. Domitianus faces Domitia, his queen. A countermark with star between them. Rev. Sitting Zeus. With letters KI BY. 22 mm, 7.17 gr. RPC 1262; Howgego 444 (c/m). 

----------------------------------------------------

What I like a lot is the Sasanian area, too, the coins of the mysterious Hunnic tribes that threatened Persia's east in the 5th-7th century. The large and interesting imitations of silver Sasanian drachms often sport various countermarks. This is a good example, a coin type known as the Yabghu (= chief) of Tokharestan (part of nowadays Afghanistan-Uzbekistan, the headwaters of the Oxus, around Qunduz and Balkh). Look at that lively flying camel counterstamp! About 40 of these were auctioned in a short window of time in 2016, I was happy I could acquire some. 

5728Yabghusnm.jpg.6a640b3bebd98c18ae2ee7f4f18c8866.jpg

5728. AR drachm, ‘Yabghu of Tokharestan’ type, 600-680 AD. Good silver imitation of a drachm of Hormizd IV. Obv. ‘Hormizd IV’ to the right, his name coarsely written, his crown altered. Countermarks: 1. winged camel, 2. vague text (‘Hebrew’ according to Zeno!!). Rev. fire altar with attendants (doublestruck), unreadable mint and date. Countermark: 3. (Pahlavi?) text. 32.5 mm, 2.88 gr. Zeno #168721 (this coin).

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This is a witness to the transition from the mighty Iranian empire to the no less powerful Islamic empire in the period 650-800 AD. It is a copper fals (the Arabic word for copper money, it derives from 'follis') from the turmoil of the Abbasid Revolution against the Umayyads, with a countermark of a Sasanian head with (Parthian looking) hair braids. The undercoin is dated 128 AH = 746 AD. But the countermark is a sign of another minting authority, of probably shortly after 746 AD.

6028wo.jpg.08e252ef42885a2aae5471425b08696c.jpg

6028. Abbasid revolution, fals, Rayy, AH 12x. Abd’allah b. Mu’awiya (744-747). Obv. with 6 ringlets in the edge. Rev. with countermarked portrait of Sasanian type, text right. 21 mm, 3.40 gr. More description, if you are interested, on Zeno 266598 (this coin). 

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For me the sad period of conquest by Turkish tribes of the inherently Greek land mass of Asia Minor or Anatolia, is the last era of interest. It started with infighting at the Byzantine side (battle of Manzikert!), something that was rife under Turkish and Arabic tribes, too. Constantinopel was overrun by the Venetians in the early 13th century. Then there was the conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols and two centuries after that the fall of Constantinopel to the Turks. I hope you don't mind that I'm sad about this, even if it's six centuries ago.

6853Mardinnm.jpg.ccbc27a665c48955be99ebf582e73599.jpg 

6853. AE Artukids, possibly of Mayyafariqin. After 1160. Follis of Constantine X (1159-1167).  Obv. with c/m 16 in Lowick, Bendall, Whitting. 28 mm, 5.15 gr. According to the Mardin Hoard book, there were some 100 coins with countermark 16 in that Hoard, of which 81 were combined with other c/ms. See p. 40. 

 

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This post has brought out some very interesting countermarks.  I've posted quite a few on CT over the years, so I'll toss a few out - some Seleucids:  

Countermarks - Seleucid elephant Apr 2019 (0).jpg

While researching these countermarks, I found some very interesting information on "A Survey of Ancient Coins" blog: http://guberman.blogspot.com/2009/08/greeceseleucid-antiochus-iii-bce-223.html

This is apparently a military issue. I quote from this blog:

"Cf. SC I, pp. 411-412 for additional information.

According to SC I, Appendix 2, pp. 66-68, "The...bronzes were apparently countermarked first with a horse head, and later with an anchor, to make them "equivalent" to later issues of similar type that had these symbols in the die. The countermarking was probably an aspect of currency regulation by the military: The Seleucid army needed to impose the use of this fiduciary coinage on the population of Ptolemaic Coele Syria during the Fifth Syrian War in order to ensure provisions for its troops." (p. 66)"

Later I got another one, and ran a comparison:

Here is the new one - the horse head is bigger - and the host coin is considerably heavier than my first one:

CM - Seleucid Ant. III horse head Jan 2020 (0).jpg

Seleucid Kingdom Æ 24
Antiochos III the Great
Military mint in Ekbatana
c. 210 B.C. / countermarked in Coele-Syria c. 202-198 B.C.

Antiochos III as Apollo right / [ΒΑΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ], elephant & mahout right, [tripod & monogram?]. SC 1272
Countermark: Horse head.
(14.06 grams / 24 mm)

Here is the one I posted above (new photo) - smaller horse head:

CM - Seleucid Ant. III horse head & anchor Ap 2019 (0).jpg

Seleucid Kingdom Æ 21
Antiochos III the Great Military mint in Ekbatana c. 210 B.C. / countermarked in Coele-Syria c. 202-198 B.C.

Antiochos III as Apollo right / ΒΑΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, elephant & mahout right.
CM: Anchor & Horse’s Head
SC 1084e; ESM 656; Spaer
819-821
(8.01 grams / 21 mm)

Here are the two of them together - note the size/weight difference:

CM - Seleucid Ant. III horse head anchor 2 types 2020 (0).jpg

For both of these I am attaching this note:

"The...bronzes were apparently countermarked first with a horse head, and later with an anchor...The Seleucid army needed to impose the use of this fiduciary coinage on the population of Ptolemaic Coele Syria during the Fifth Syrian War in order to ensure provisions for its troops."
SC I, Appendix 2, (p. 66)

How are my attributions? I'm not confident. It looks a lot like the one Pavlos posted above. But maybe the new one is not Seleucid? I found a Pontus-Ptolemaic Kingdom that looks a lot like my host:

https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=6287880

Any information on this newest one would be enormously appreciated. Is it the "horse head" issue the same for both of these (beyond the obvious size differences)? Did some of these just miss the later anchor countermark?
 

 

 

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