UkrainiiVityaz Posted January 3 · Member Share Posted January 3 Scottish Coins - David I (1124-1153) Researchers have long debated whom was the first Scottish King to have actually instituted a native Scottish coinage. Whilst the Kingdom of Northumbria encompassed parts of Scotland up to the Forth River, it is believed that all of the Northumbrian coinage was minted in the south, ie York. Occasionally these coins are found in southern Scotland. Ca. 1980 there was a report in the press about a researcher determining that a coin was minted during the reign of Ecfrith of Deira and Northumbria (664-670 AD) in Scotland, but subsequent research has determined that this theory is not with due merit. Earlier volumes on Scottish Coinage, such as "The Coinage of Scotland" by J.D. Robertson have suggested that the first native Scottish coins were issued during the reign of Alexander I (1107-1124) however this is 19th century research, which has since been disproven. Without a doubt, David I issued coins in his name, and therefore is most likely the first Scottish monarch to have actually issued them as such. The first Scottish coins are believed to be those issued by King David I(1124-1153), previous to this time very few coins ever found their way into Scotland, though some Roman era and Northumbrian sceats are very occasionally found. The first issue of coins was ca. 1136, and was likely connected to the Scottish capture of Carlisle and it's mines. Even after the introduction of a native coinage, barter continued to the basis for the economy for many years. David I was the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore (1058-1093) and the third son to have acceded the throne after his father. His early years appear to have been spent in England, the birthplace of his mother, Margaret(whom was the sister of Edgar The Aetheling.) With his mother's sponsorship, and given his lower rank in the possibility of his inheriting the throne he spent much of his youth in the Church and was an accomplished student. In 1113 he was married to Matilda, whom was the daughter of the Earl of Northumberland. With this marriage he acquired lands south of the Hadrian's Wall in Northumberland, Huntington and Northampton. This acquisition would result in his being recognised as a Norman Baron. David's older brother, Alexander I, soon would recognise David as the sub-king of the Scottish lowlands as a result. In 1124 Alexander I died and the throne again was inherited by a son of Malcolm Canmore and David I would soon have the opportunity to forge Scotland into a united kingdom once more, as divisions existed from the earlier disputed monarchs of Scotland. Some of the legacies which were instituted during this reign included the creation of the counties of Scotland, which in effect lasted until 1975. Whilst there was a sound degree of harmony in Scotland, the opposite was true of her southern neighbour, England. The first English Civil War was in full swing, with Stephen (1135-1154) as King of England defending himself against Matilda, whom was the daughter of Henry with purportedly a better claim at the throne. Whilst the explanation of the English Civil War would take up volumes, it can be summarised in that David I of Scotland soon saw opportunity knocking and moved south in favour of his niece, Matilda in 1135. Despite having made this move, it is in retrospect, obvious that he was looking more for acquisition than assisting Matilda, as subsequently his support could be described as lukewarm at best. The move south resulted in the Scots acquiring Carlisle, with it's nearby mines, and importantly for coin collectors, it's mint. Coins had been struck in the name of Stephen since the previous year. The capture of the mint resulted in some coins in Stephen's name still being struck after the capture, but soon they began changing the dies and issued pennies in David's name. Many of the coins issued during this reign are quite similar to the English issues of Stephen, and this has led to some confusion given the fact that all of the coins from this era were quite crude by comparison with earlier issues. Workmanship on the coins had deteriorated, and legends on the coins were often blundered, the result of uneducated die cutters creating the coins. All of the coins of this era featured a portrait of the monarch, or more likely during this time a crude representation of him. The reverse was usually a short cross with pellets in the quarters of it. Later in the reign coins were minted in Berwick, Perth, Roxburgh and Edinburgh. Denominations used during this reign Silver Penny Pennies were the only denomination struck, they were struck at 22.5 grains weight at .925 fine ie sterling standard. They are divided into the following classes:Period A or First Issue(ca. 1136-1144): As Henry I(of England) but with DAVIT REX minted at Carlisle, then a possession of the Scots. This coin is S-5001 and SD11D-005. This coin is extremely rare. As Stephen I(of England) but with STIEFNE REX minted at Carlisle, then a possession of the Scots. This coin is S-5002 and SD11D-010. This coin is very rare. Like Stephen coin above but with DAVIT REX minted at Edinburgh. This coin is S-5003 and SD11D-015. This coin is extremely rare.Period B or Second Issue(ca. 1144-1149): Blundered and poorly executed copy of Stephen's coins minted at Edinburgh and Roxburgh, This coin is S-5004 and SD11D-020. This coin is very rare, but one of the most common types found of David I's coinage. Henry I(of England) but with DAVIT REX and annulet or crescent enclosing pellet; minted at Carlisle, Berwick, Edinburgh, Perth & Roxburgh. This coin is S-5005 and SD11D-025. This coin is extremely rare. Bishop of Carlisle minted at Carlisle, king holding a branch. This coin is S-5006 and SD11D-030. This coin is extremely rare.Period C or Third Issue(ca. 1149-1153): Coins of better workmanship, with DAVIT REX and crowned bust with sceptre. Minted at Carlisle, Roxburgh, St. Andrews and Berwick. Usually with single pellet in angles. This coin is S-5007 and SD11D-035. This coin is rare, but one of the most common types found of David I's coinage. Similar but has other symbols instead of pellets in angles. This coin is S-5008 and SD11D-035. This coin is rare.Period D or Fourth Issue(ca. 1153): DAVIT REX etc., sometimes retrograde legends and crude bust. This coin is S-5009 and SD11D-040. This coin is very rare. Blundered and retrograde legends still, but better style of King's bust. This coin is S-5010 and SD11D-045. This coin is very rare. Collecting coins from this reign Collecting the coins of David I are quite challenging, as all of them are very rare nowadays. When they are found, it is usually a unique find, and not as a hoard. In scanning through important auctions of Scottish coinage, for example the Dundee Sale of 1976 it is notable that this reign is only scarcely represented. In fact in that auction of hundreds of Scottish coins there were only two lots from this reign. Currently, lower graded and properly identified coins from this reign start out at approximately £600 each. Collectors should exercise caution as there are very many similar English pennies, most of which are quite more common. 11 1 Quote Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...
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