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Monarchy of the British Isles, from Celtic times to today, including the Commonwealth of Oliver Cromwell


robinjojo
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4 minutes ago, robinjojo said:

I got James VI of Scotland covered.  The others, except David still need representation.

Yes I don't know whether we need to count all the Scottish issues once the kingdoms were under one monarch but before the Acts of Union under Anne. James VI was also James I, although to be fair, he was James VI alone first.

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Philip and Mary Base Issue Penny, 1554-1558
image.png.a7baa5652d8546109428b5538af01c8b.png
Tower. Base silver, 15mm, 0.65g. Central Tudor rose within beaded circle; P Z M D G ROSA SINE SPI. Quartered shield of arms over cross fourchée; CIVI TAS LON DON; mintmark half-rose and castle (S 2510A).

Edited by John Conduitt
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Let's not forget James I.  I don't see a coin of his posted yet. 

I did post a coin of his as James VI of Scotland, but due to the significance of his reign (including The Gun Powder Plot) as James I, it would be nice to have a coin from that period.

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Just now, robinjojo said:

Let's not forget James I.  I don't see a coin of his posted yet. 

I did post a coin of his as James VI of Scotland, but due to the significance of his reign (including the The Gun Powder Plot) as James I, it would be nice to have a coin from that period.

Yes @rhj959 posted a halfgroat. Here's another of his .

James I Second Issue Shilling, 1605-1606
image.png.73f8734d9d6ce52b94767bebf6cd8c23.png
Tower. Silver, 31mm, 5.77g. Crowned fourth bust to right, value to left; ·IACOBVS·D·G·MAG·BRIT·FRA·ET·HIB·REX·. Quartered arms, privy mark rose; QUAE·DEVS·CONIVNXIT·NEMO·SEPARET (S 2655). From the Kempen (North Brabant, Netherlands) Hoard c2020, Buried in 1616, it contained various European gold and silver coins, suggesting it belonged to a Dutch merchant.

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Aha....Edward VII

Edward VII reigned from 1901-1910. He was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and ascended to the throne at the ripe old age of 60. Because his coronation took place over 1 1/2 years after the death of his mother Victoria, all his coins depicted the king crownless, with one exception the 1 Anna which was introduced in 1906. Also his portrait is portrayed facing right...

Here's my example..1907...1 Anna..Bombay Mint...Mintage 37,256,000...KM#504

20190120_1907-one-anna-ccfopt-ccfopt-ccfopt.jpg.f3bfe8fca6323d74d2bb2437c5498c2d.jpg

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Ok, technically we've covered all the English monarchs from William I onwards (in 24 hours). Only Louis VIII (who doesn't really count) and Mary without Philip. And this guy... it's not a British coin but it's a British monarch and struck in Britain...

Edward VIII East Africa Ten Cents, 1936-H
image.png.53e74c50204d694376845a5c724bb2e7.png
Heaton's Mint, Birmingham. Bronze, 30.6mm, 11.19g. Central hole divides crown and denomination; EDWARDVS VIII REX ET IND:IMP: / TEN CENTS / KN (engraver). Curved tusks flank the centre hole; EAST AFRICA 10. Edge: Smooth (KM 24). Edward VIII abdicated before any coins were struck of him in Britain, but some exist for overseas territories.

Edited by John Conduitt
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While being a coin issued by rebels, it does depicted James II on horseback.  This uprising on the behalf of James II initiated Jacobitism, the movement to restore the Stuart line, culminating in the Jacobite defeat in 1745 at the Battle of Culloden.

James II, Ireland, AE crown "gun money", 1690.  Struck on a new flan.

19.3 grams

984066825_D-CameraJamesIIIrelandAEcrowngunmoney1690newflan19.3g7-22-21.jpg.ba69b79898483b2c50947abc430d44da.jpg

 

Edited by robinjojo
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Here's one of the pre-Alfred Saxons...

Burgred Lunette Type A Penny, 852-874
image.png.3cf48c77944869c4303efb4c9e476c1a.png
London. Silver, 19.5mm, 1.36g. Bust (type V5) right; BURGREDREX+. +BEAGZTA in between [N]MON | ETA (Beagstan moneyer); two clowed lunettes divide the legend (S 938).

Edited by John Conduitt
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Here are some Scottish.  James I-V.

 

D8FFFF51-D64F-45F2-92BE-20F6EF0E5D54.jpeg.fb6f13aa9050fb3bfb20f6c89881041b.jpeg

James I, king of Scotland 1406-1437

 

3C9C1217-94B6-4B88-947A-270D3AD69E14.jpeg.07fcdcb8ebeeb662ba4b5bd31ff933bd.jpeg

James II, king of Scotland 1437-1460

 

A42EB695-A518-4992-87A4-A178ABDA0A33.jpeg.8426153c50d83c17952e39bd0eab57a1.jpeg

James III, king of Scotland 1460-1488

 

853A174F-F961-4105-8AEF-B0A2101FF969.jpeg.ce0364fac74a6a2002534a9cffb1237f.jpeg

James IV, king of Scotland 1488-1513

 

F87486CA-759E-4ACE-8676-DE431423648A.jpeg.52116dd7741b4b53ff2cfa9068f5ebd1.jpeg

James V, king of Scotland 1513-1542

 

With 5 consecutive kings of the same name, all descended from each other, all with relatively long reigns, one might think this was a peaceful, stable time for Scotland.  No such luck.  Despite their long reigns, the James’ all died prematurely, often violently, and there was considerable instability, internally and externally.

While it’s somewhat tragic, the circumstances of their deaths are memorable.

James I was assassinated in his home.  He had warning of the assassin, and might have gotten away, except that his basement exit was locked to prevent people from stealing his tennis balls.

James II was a big fan of artillery.  Sadly, the technology was still somewhat dangerous, and James was blown up by one of his own cannons during a siege.

James III died in battle, fighting against his own subjects who wanted to overthrow him in favor of his son, the future James IV.  James IV was probably a pawn of the barons, but at 15 years old, he was not a babe in the woods.  Later, James IV would greatly regret his role in his father’s death and would wear a heavy chain in penance.

James IV was the last king of the British Isles to die in battle, at the disastrous battle of Flodden, against the English.

James V died shortly after the battle of disastrous battle of Solway Moss, also against the English, not from battle wounds but from disease.  James’ wife was pregnant and gave birth shortly before his death.  James, who was dying, when hearing that his wife had given birth to a daughter, was said to have remarked that the Stuarts “began with a lass and will end with a lass”, referring to Marjorie Bruce, his ancestor, and Mary, soon to be known as Mary queen of Scots, his daughter.

To end on a slightly more positive note, James V was prematurely wrong about the fate of the house of Stuart.  His daughter, Mary queen of Scots, was a remarkable woman who parried the long knives always at her back for her entire life, until finally her cousin Queen Elizabeth (who was supposed to be her protector) did her in.  But it did not end with Mary.  Her son, James VI, would end up sitting on both the English and Scottish thrones.  And James VI would finally break the cycle and die of natural causes.

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Beautiful set. Some of these are really hard to get in good condition.

Eadmund Small Cross Horizontal-Pellet 1 Penny, 939-946
image.png.5eeda74af854578a01a4bf80fbc9f55f.png
Southern mint. Silver, 20mm, 1.21g. Small cross pattée; +EΛDMVИD REX (moneyer Eadred) in two lines broken by row of three crosses pattée; pellet above and below (S 1105). PCGS AU-50

Edited by John Conduitt
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I haven't read through this thread in its entirety, but it looks great -- too bad I missed it! But since I'm using the "Crowns" thread for my British crowns, and my "World Gold" thread for my British gold, I would have been conflicted anyway. I do have some photos of other denominations that I haven't posted before, but at this point I think I'll put them in the general "World Coins free-for-all" thread. So many choices!

And I'm afraid I don't have any of the missing rulers. Speaking of which, to the extent one counts Louis VIII as a King of England, then as such he should be referred to as Louis I. N'est ce pas?

 

Edited by DonnaML
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If you have a coin of a king or queen, Donna, that you have posted elsewhere, as I have done innumerable times, please feel free to post it here, even if it isn't "filling a gap".  

Redundancy is okay.  I repeat, redundancy is okay.

As for Louis VIII, I suppose he would have been Louis I of England in 1216, if he was crowned, but he wasn't.  

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19 minutes ago, robinjojo said:

If you have a coin of a king or queen, Donna, that you have posted elsewhere, as I have done innumerable times, please feel free to post it here, even if it isn't "filling a gap".  

Redundancy is okay.  I repeat, redundancy is okay.

As for Louis VIII, I suppose he would have been Louis I of England in 1216, if he was crowned, but he wasn't.  

Thanks, @robinjojo. However, instead of going through that exercise per se, I hereby incorporate in this thread, by reference, the 17 British coins I just posted a few minutes ago in the World Coins "free-for-all" thread. See my post at https://www.numisforums.com/topic/1183-world-coins-free-for-all-anything-and-everything-post-em-up/?do=findComment&comment=21080 .

 

Edited by DonnaML
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4 hours ago, DonnaML said:

And I'm afraid I don't have any of the missing rulers. Speaking of which, to the extent one counts Louis VIII as a King of England, then as such he should be referred to as Louis I. N'est ce pas?

Yes this is a tricky one. I don't think he should even count, as he didn't issue coins in England and didn't issue coins at all until he was crowned king of France in 1223, 6 years after he ruled half of England (disputedly). I haven't included Lady Jane Grey, Ælfweard, Edmund II Ironside or Edgar Ætheling on the basis that they were disputed and had no coins, and Louis only makes it because he later issued coins as King of France.

Wikipedia call him 'Louis the Lion' so perhaps that's what he would've been called 🤣

Edmund II Ironside perhaps should be in the list, since he wasn't disputed and may have issued coins, but no-one has been able to work out which (if any) of the coins named 'Aethelred' (the Unready) were his. They haven't even been able to work out which are from Aethelred's second reign, other than they were definitely small cross types.

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Problem with Louis is that even his French coins are tough to narrow down. The denier tournois was issued during his reign and the reign of Louis IX, and they can’t currently be distinguished.  I read somewhere (?) that the deniers reading “TVRONVS CIVI” should be assigned to Louis VIII and this reading “TVRONVS CIVIS” to Louis IX but I don’t think this is widely accepted.  My knowledge of French coinage is limited.

But here is my coin that I attribute to Louis VIII in my attempt to have every monarch:

62BC5A4C-1A66-4BB5-B077-61661D9983E3.jpeg.89c44e492364fc324629c14bc1045a0d.jpeg

 

Aelfweard, Edgar Aetheling, and Jane Grey certainly issued no coins.  Neither did Aethelbald, who was sub-king under Aethelwulf of Wessex.  Fantasy pieces or alterations of coins are known for Aethelbald and Jane Grey, and perhaps the others.

Edmund II is a more curious case.  While he was disputed, he was accepted as king in much of Wessex.  He was around for 6 months.  He had an army to pay.  Why did he not issue any coins of his own?  Certainly some coins of Aethelred II last small cross type were issued during Edmund’s time.

Sven Forkbeard is another one.  The Viking chieftain too was accepted as king of England but was only on the scene for a little over a month, so no coins of his are known.  A tiny number of Scandinavian coins survive in his name (I’m only aware of 3 or 4 known) and several imitation coins of Aethelred II can be assigned “time of Sven” but that’s it.

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3 hours ago, Nap said:

Problem with Louis is that even his French coins are tough to narrow down. The denier tournois was issued during his reign and the reign of Louis IX, and they can’t currently be distinguished.  I read somewhere (?) that the deniers reading “TVRONVS CIVI” should be assigned to Louis VIII and this reading “TVRONVS CIVIS” to Louis IX but I don’t think this is widely accepted.  My knowledge of French coinage is limited.

But here is my coin that I attribute to Louis VIII in my attempt to have every monarch:

62BC5A4C-1A66-4BB5-B077-61661D9983E3.jpeg.89c44e492364fc324629c14bc1045a0d.jpeg

 

Aelfweard, Edgar Aetheling, and Jane Grey certainly issued no coins.  Neither did Aethelbald, who was sub-king under Aethelwulf of Wessex.  Fantasy pieces or alterations of coins are known for Aethelbald and Jane Grey, and perhaps the others.

Edmund II is a more curious case.  While he was disputed, he was accepted as king in much of Wessex.  He was around for 6 months.  He had an army to pay.  Why did he not issue any coins of his own?  Certainly some coins of Aethelred II last small cross type were issued during Edmund’s time.

Sven Forkbeard is another one.  The Viking chieftain too was accepted as king of England but was only on the scene for a little over a month, so no coins of his are known.  A tiny number of Scandinavian coins survive in his name (I’m only aware of 3 or 4 known) and several imitation coins of Aethelred II can be assigned “time of Sven” but that’s it.

Thanks, we don't need to fret about Louis now 🤣 We have all the monarchs from WIlliam I now (although a sole reign Mary and a 2nd reign Henry VI would be good).

Yes the Saxon period is very messy, with the Vikings ruling sporadically in East Anglia and Northumberland, and many of them apparently not issuing coins in England but maybe elsewhere. It's a bit academic though, as I think it will take us long enough to cover all the other more established monarchs in Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria. I won't even get into Kent, Sussex, East Anglia and Essex, as those were subordinate kingdoms and archbishops or didn't issue coins.

Edward the Confessor Expanding Cross Heavy Issue Penny, 1050-1053
image.png.26e3139a732d29442ce753cd515056c2.pngLondon. Silver, 1.71g. Diademed and draped bust left, trefoil-tipped sceptre before; + EDÞE: •RD REX :. Expanding cross; + L•EOFRED ON LVNDENE (S 1177).

Edited by John Conduitt
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I don't want this thread to be too much of me showing off coins, but I can give you a few more of the more challenging missing ones:

alfred-buga-1b-ii.jpg.26bd57b0cfd652f0d46ca9fca355c13c.jpg

Alfred the Great, king of Wessex 871-899
Nonportrait penny, Buga (or Boga) the moneyer

 

ceolwulf-ii-liofwald-1-ii.jpg.2603cbe187affa2356a6968de0f74e3a.jpg

Ceolwulf II, king of Mercia 874-879
Penny, probably from London, Leofwald the moneyer

 

eadwig-eanwulf-1b-i.jpg.bd6864ebbb5d4ed991b894f6cda15b75.jpg

Eadwig, king of England 955-959
Nonportrait penny, possibly from Lincoln, Eanwulf the moneyer

 

eadward-martyr-1c-i.jpg.ecfb181941dce64420ca4a65ed272755.jpg

Edward the Martyr, king of England 975-978
Penny, Canterbury mint, Aethelstan the moneyer

 

david-i-erebald-1b-ii.jpg.8de14219cabd7427e6d73a0ae5afdaaa.jpg

David I, king of Scotland 1124-1153
Penny, Carlisle mint, Erebald the moneyer
(A rough coin but extremely rare as the very first Scottish coin, copying Henry I type XV, only about a dozen known)

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53 minutes ago, Nap said:

I don't want this thread to be too much of me showing off coins

I think you're safe there. We'll love seeing your coins, and there won't be many people who could've posted them anyway. Certainly not me. Even the 'easy' Saxon list is difficult.

I'll continue the Londinium coins.

Constantius II Follis, 324-325
image.png.a737abadd355f4690e5965c0f763956e.pngLondinium. Bronze, 20mm. 2.99g. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left; FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C. Campgate with two turrets; star above; PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; mintmark PLON (RIC VII, 298).

Edited by John Conduitt
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Crispus Follis, 322-323
image.png.3042c213e6bfaba39b7e8a14e0e8d835.pngLondinium. Bronze, 21mm, 3.44g. Helmeted cuirassed bust left; CRISPVS - NOBIL C. Globe on altar inscribed VOT / IS / XX; BEAT TRA-NQLITAS; mintmark PLON in exergue (RIC VII, 230).
 

Licinius I Follis, 315-316
image.png.ff031cc8e7c869049bc3b31ee146fdc6.png
Londinium. Bronze, 21mm, 2.98g. Laureate, cuirassed bust right; IMP LICINIVS PF AVG. Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae, modius on head, loins draped] SF in field, mintmark MSL in exergue (RIC VI, 31). Ex Bourton-on-the-Water (Gloucestershire) Hoard 1970.

Maximinus II as Augustus AE2, 310-312
image.png.43c44b3822e40f6ed864003ce0eed0c1.pngLondinium. Bronze, 22mm, 4.90g. Laureate and cuirassed bust right; IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG. Genio standing left, tower on head, loins draped, holding patera and cornucopiae, star in right field; GENIO-POP ROM; mintmark PLN (RIC VI, 209b).

Edited by John Conduitt
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British Anglo-Saxon. Kings of All England. Harthacnut, AD 1040-1042. AR Penny Arm and Scepter (BMC [Cnut] xvii) type. In the name of Cnut. York Mint; Stircol, moneyer. Obv: Diademed and armored bust left, holding scepter. Rev: Quadrilateral, with pellet in center, over voided short cross. Ref: North 799; SCBC 1169.

image.jpeg.19f1b5abe6ffcd3114ea7008a19c8541.jpeg

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Again, thank you all for posting your incredible coins!  What an assortment of rare and fascinating issues, truly reflecting the enthusiasm for history and numismatics that's reflected in our collections.  Thank you all, especially, for posting the truly rare types preceding Henry VIII.  Many I have never seen before.

My last contribution fills no gaps and is not particularly scarce.  

Australia, George V,  sovereign, 1919, Perth Mint.

KM 29 

270329948_D-CameraGeorgeVsovererign1919AustrailiaPerthMintKarlKM299-18-22.jpg.0b965078605e14744026cba8ef86d382.jpg

This coin was sold to me at melt, which was around $59 back in the early 1990s.  Normally I don't do this, but it is a nice example for type, so why not?

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52 minutes ago, robinjojo said:

Again, thank you all for posting your incredible coins!  What an assortment of rare and fascinating issues, truly reflecting the enthusiasm for history and numismatics that's reflected in our collections.  Thank you all, especially, for posting the truly rare types preceding Henry VIII.  Many I have never seen before.

My last contribution fills no gaps and is not particularly scarce.  

Australia, George V,  sovereign, 1919, Perth Mint.

KM 29 

270329948_D-CameraGeorgeVsovererign1919AustrailiaPerthMintKarlKM299-18-22.jpg.0b965078605e14744026cba8ef86d382.jpg

This coin was sold to me at melt, which was around $59 back in the early 1990s.  Normally I don't do this, but it is a nice example for type, so why not?

We haven't seen much gold, so it definitely adds!

 

 

5 hours ago, Edessa said:

British Anglo-Saxon. Kings of All England. Harthacnut, AD 1040-1042. AR Penny Arm and Scepter (BMC [Cnut] xvii) type. In the name of Cnut. York Mint; Stircol, moneyer. Obv: Diademed and armored bust left, holding scepter. Rev: Quadrilateral, with pellet in center, over voided short cross. Ref: North 799; SCBC 1169.

image.jpeg.19f1b5abe6ffcd3114ea7008a19c8541.jpeg

That's a really nice example, both sides. I don't have Harthacnut, and I always image if I do, it will be much less nice.

A few more from Londinium.

Carausius Antoninianus, 286
image.png.d1610174ec85694c5474c803d633977e.png
Londinium. Silver, 19mm, 2.32g. Radiate bust right; CARAVSIVS AVG. Pax standing left holding branch and sceptre; PAX AVG (cf RIC 878-91).

Diocletian Follis, 298-300

image.png.0c676c340d9af16a39304a75f36cf2d6.png
Londinium. Bronze, 10.65g. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (RIC VI, 6a).

Maximian I First Reign Follis, 300

image.png.d1211d369c80577f9dfca7552c64d10a.png
Londinium. Bronze, 26mm 9.36g. Laureate and cuirassed bust right; IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (RIC VI, 6b).

Maximian I Second Reign Follis, 307

image.png.619d05d082df371f1fa1f695ce725f32.png
London. Bronze, 25mm, 7.28g. Laureate and cuirassed bust right; DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG. Genius standing left, turret on head, holding patera and cornucopia; GENIO POP ROM; PLN in exergue (RIC VI, 90).

Galerius (as Caesar) Follis, 300-303

image.png.244abcb58e2e309ce3aba5d313cb9dd1.png
Londinium. Bronze, 32mm, 9.23g. Laureate cuirassed bust (small head, long neck) right; MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys draped over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae; GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI (RIC VI, 15). From the Langtoft A (Yorkshire) Hoard 2000, buried 305.

Edited by John Conduitt
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