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Egyptian scarabs : date and interpretation


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@zumbly maybe the maker of the scarab was an 'alien' for the Egyptians, living in that period. I think it is a Mediterranean imitation and I have a personal interpretation for your 'alien' scarab : on the top of the back side you have a spacecraft, leaving the earth, on the lower part, a frog sitting on a stool is watching it. So, if I am right, you have an unique piece of history 😄

I think the hieroglyphs have no sense, imitated by a non-Egyptian.

@DonnaML that's right, only the style of the scarab can give you an exact making date

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two others scarabs of my collection, both of the Hyksos-period.

steatit,17 mm, 12 mm, 8 mm.

the scarab has many details: the first part of the clypeus is white as the body, beside the head are the eyes indicated, the separation of the elytra and the prothorax is indicated by 2 notches, on the prothorax are 2 antennas and the sides are very well marked.

On the base are 7 concentric circle, joined by 2 flowerstems

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image.png.b809c8da29f1c89aeb7f0e78e80fb2ce.pngimage.png.9784c2516e983c1e95ca8b06b80be906.png

 

The second has been restaured at the head.

 

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steatit, 20 mm, 14 mm, 8 mm, restaured : head and clypeus right.

On the base is a geometric pattern, assembled in an ellipse and converging in the middle in a small circle.The 2 halves are as a mirror image. Under this design is a central rod with a design from the top to the bottom and touching the middle of the outside.

These geometric designs are typical for the period from Sesostris I (XII° Dynasty) to the XVIII° dynasty.

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Another Hyksos scarab for today because, as every collector of scarabs knows : a scarab a day keeps the doctor away😗

Faience scarab, 14 mm, 10mm, 5 mm, about 1500 BC. I had a problem to date it exactly because there the type of the head and the clypeus is not in my catalogue. This is normal because scarab were made in such quantities by so much artisans there are many differences. The whole style of the scarab is Hyksos, as the work is not so fine (maybe because the material faience) I think I have to date this scarab at the end of the Hyksos period or beginning XVIII° Dynasty = 1500 BC

The base represent a design of single and double curls in oblique on a central rod, which is passing in the middle trough a quadrate and ends by a flower bud. This design had maybe a magical meaning.

 

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image.png.6f9560118febb7bdb387b67c0643f1de.pngimage.png.14426a2ca6ea7b6031b54ad12529b733.png

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Next one is a real Egyptian scarab, not a Hyksos-version.

Steatit, 15 mm, 5 mm, 6 mmm, second intermediary period, XVI° Dynasty.

The inscription is  𓎟 𓆄 𓋹 : nb m;’.t ‘nh : neb maat ankh. 

The hieroglyph neb is reversed to fit better in the curve, it means Lord

The second one is the ideogram for truth and the symbol for the goddess Maat

The third one is the ankh, meaning live. The translation is : Lord of the Truth and of Live, a title indicating the Pharaoh, who was the link between the gods ans the world. This titla was already used in the Old Period. The signs of Maat and Ankh are often found in names.

The scarab is of better quality than the inscription on the base, indicating maybe that these scarabs were fabricated in advance and that the buyer had the possibility to choose the inscription, made by another person. There is little damage because the base broke 

 

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image.png.f70446912551f14fba14f32c3661a432.pngimage.png.29513a88ad41a15e4601ad486eeca8c9.png

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A scarab from the same period.

image.png.1b0f072a7d402050fc3f909998801af8.pngimage.png.679a3d5c4d7bd556b312d4e5edf9ed45.pngimage.png.eb5ba2f93c1443bbbf7d38c9ac9b940c.pngimage.png.0d89dbecb88691c84ddd9f9b3fcbb33f.pngimage.png.3b09ce09ffc0b6a2492777e02ba82904.pngimage.png.4c498ee33709ea4285b3131e12f442dc.png

 

steatit,24 mm, 16 mm, 9 mm, second intermediary period, XVII° Dynasty

right the hieroglyph           𓇓                      left     𓆄          and    𓆗 The king is represented with the white crown of Upper Egypt, right there is a hieroglyph indicating it is the king from Upper Egypt   image.png.05e38c7322ef91297fd5b523f8062b57.pngthe hierogliph is the symbol representing the title King of Upper Egypt.

The two other hieroglyphs indicates that the farao is responsible for justice (Maat) and is protected by the uraeus.

Between the pharao and the hieroglyphs is another sign (or two maybe ?). I suppose it is hieratic script, but I am not sure.

          

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This is a scarab from the XVIII° Dynasty. Glazed steatit, 17 mm, 11 mm, 6 mm. Steatit (soapstone)is a soft material mostly used from the XII° to the XX° Dynasty. Scarabs made of steatit were often glazed and this can also help us for dating. The characteristic glaze of the early XVIII° Dynasty is green with a grey shade, for the later periods are the colors from green to blue.

The base shows three hieroglyphs :  𓏠 :  𓆄 𓅯

the first represents a game board : mn = constant

the second is the symbol for Maat : the Truth

The third is a landing duck : hni = be present

So we can translate : Maat is all the time here. It can also be a name, because the hieroglyph mn is often used in namen ; p.e. : in the naame Amon.

 

image.png.83031123ef34836fb99631b26710915d.pngimage.png.35acecd5cfa3c8530c55aba088897f5f.png

 

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4 hours ago, antwerpen2306 said:

This is a scarab from the XVIII° Dynasty. Glazed steatit, 17 mm, 11 mm, 6 mm. Steatit (soapstone)is a soft material mostly used from the XII° to the XX° Dynasty. Scarabs made of steatit were often glazed and this can also help us for dating. The characteristic glaze of the early XVIII° Dynasty is green with a grey shade, for the later periods are the colors from green to blue.

The base shows three hieroglyphs :  𓏠 :  𓆄 𓅯

the first represents a game board : mn = constant

the second is the symbol for Maat : the Truth

The third is a landing duck : hni = be present

So we can translate : Maat is all the time here. It can also be a name, because the hieroglyph mn is often used in namen ; p.e. : in the naame Amon.

 

image.png.83031123ef34836fb99631b26710915d.pngimage.png.35acecd5cfa3c8530c55aba088897f5f.png

 

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A small faience scarab from the XXIIth Dynasty ( 945-712 BC), 9 mm, 5 mm, 3 mm.

For faience scarabs, the scarab was first produced, then the inscription engraved and finally glazed.

On the base is the name of Amon-Ra and the sign neb : overlord. This sign is on the top and at the bottom : i mn r’ nb 𓇋𓏠𓇿 𓇳 𓎟

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I have ended yesterday my book concerning my Near Eastern and Egyptian antiquities with this Egyptian text

 

image.png.65c8a0f722687c789b46b8e412497e6a.png

                                                Hier eindigt het boek.

      image.png.9bc8a33bfe194f9cab575824cecb3b78.png

                  Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar, 1957, p 143

 

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To end this part of the scarabs, a very nice XVIIIth Dynasty one. Steatit, 16 mm, 10 mm, 6 mm.

image.png.96ba8868782ef2ded2713c3ba6c39114.pngimage.png.9cc250ebbe7d8b513d18c249ec1b8581.pngimage.png.d1527fb6dad886bace4dbb96c5828cf0.png

 

image.png.4477d8199a810a445b6f6e1211caf722.pngimage.png.24f04f29ef6277a1d8e797a79ec5c28f.pngimage.png.8bc194b6a97629f3df2cf465d1d6854e.png

The scarab is very well carved, you can see through under the scarab.

On the base are 5 hieroglyphs, but 2 times the sames.

First 2 x a papyrus at the top and under, indicating Lower Egypt  𓇉      

in the middle : the hieroglyph meaning to be in  command  𓎗

at right and left :  the hieroglyph representing the red crown of Lower Egypt 𓋔

so we can understand this inscription as : the Farao (the crown)is commanding in Lower Egypt.

 

If you have a problem or a question, you are welcome, I help if I can.

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